Real Life Pharmacology - Pharmacology Education for Health Care Professionals https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/podcast-2/ A Meded101.com Production Thu, 28 May 2020 15:07:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.3.3 Pharmacology is one of the most challenge topics you will encounter as a healthcare professional, but it can be the most rewarding with a good understanding. Whether you are preparing to be a nurse, physician, physician assistant, pharmacist, dentist, nurse practitioner, pharmacy technician, pharmacologist, or other healthcare professional, this podcast will help you better understand pharmacology. In addition to giving you the basics like mechanism of action, side effects, drug interactions, etc., you will also be exposed to how medications actually impact patients in real life. In the Real Life Pharmacology podcast, Eric Christianson, PharmD shares his real world experiences about how a medication's mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions can actually impact patients in both a positive and a potentially negative way. Eric Christianson PharmD is the author of the popular clinical pharmacy blog Meded101.com. People who are passionate about nursing, medicine, or pharmacy will find this podcast beneficial in helping them prepare for passing exams. This podcast is for educational purposes only and is not medical advice or intended to be a substitute for medical advice. Please seek advice from your pharmacist or primary care provider if you have questions about medications that you are taking. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean episodic Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist mededucation101@gmail.com mededucation101@gmail.com (Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist) Pharmacology Education for pharmacy students, nursing students, medical students, nurse practitioner students and physician assistant students Real Life Pharmacology - Pharmacology Education for Health Care Professionals http://www.reallifepharmacology.com/wp-content/uploads/powerpress/Real_Life_Pharmacy_3-01.jpg https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/podcast-2/ TV-PG Weekly Rivastigmine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/rivastigmine-pharmacology/ Thu, 28 May 2020 15:07:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=732 Rivastigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the management of certain dementias. I discuss rivastigmine pharmacology on this episode. Weight loss is a potential adverse effect of rivastigmine. It is important to monitor weights. Anticholinergic medications such as diphenhydramine can blunt the effects of rivastigmine. Rarely, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like rivastigmine can cause bradycardia. Rivastigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the management of certain dementias. I discuss rivastigmine pharmacology on this episode.

Weight loss is a potential adverse effect of rivastigmine. It is important to monitor weights.

Anticholinergic medications such as diphenhydramine can blunt the effects of rivastigmine.

Rarely, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like rivastigmine can cause bradycardia.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Rivastigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the management of certain dementias. I discuss rivastigmine pharmacology on this episode. Weight loss is a potential adverse effect of rivastigmine. It is important to monitor weights. Rivastigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the management of certain dementias. I discuss rivastigmine pharmacology on this episode. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Weight loss is a potential adverse effect of rivastigmine. It is important to monitor weights. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Anticholinergic medications such as diphenhydramine can blunt the effects of rivastigmine. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rarely, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like rivastigmine can cause bradycardia. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:42
Caffeine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/caffeine-pharmacology/ Thu, 21 May 2020 15:58:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=729 Caffeine is a commonly used supplement and is found in many food and beverages. I discuss caffeine pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions. Caffeine can inhibit CYP1A2 and also be affected by CYP1A2 inhibitors. I discuss some examples in the podcast. It is critical to inquire about caffeine intake when patients are reporting insomnia. Caffeine has been associated with increases in pulse and blood pressure. Be sure to ask about caffeine intake when assessing these vital signs. Caffeine is a commonly used supplement and is found in many food and beverages. I discuss caffeine pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions.

Caffeine can inhibit CYP1A2 and also be affected by CYP1A2 inhibitors. I discuss some examples in the podcast.

It is critical to inquire about caffeine intake when patients are reporting insomnia.

Caffeine has been associated with increases in pulse and blood pressure. Be sure to ask about caffeine intake when assessing these vital signs.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Caffeine is a commonly used supplement and is found in many food and beverages. I discuss caffeine pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions. Caffeine can inhibit CYP1A2 and also be affected by CYP1A2 inhibitors. Caffeine is a commonly used supplement and is found in many food and beverages. I discuss caffeine pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Caffeine can inhibit CYP1A2 and also be affected by CYP1A2 inhibitors. I discuss some examples in the podcast. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is critical to inquire about caffeine intake when patients are reporting insomnia. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Caffeine has been associated with increases in pulse and blood pressure. Be sure to ask about caffeine intake when assessing these vital signs. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:12
Colestipol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/colestipol-pharmacology/ Thu, 14 May 2020 12:06:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=725 Colestipol is a bile acid sequestrant that can be used in the management of hyperlipidemia. By binding bile acid in the gut, colestipol can lower LDL that is bound to bile acid by eliminating it through the feces. Numerous drug interactions existed as colestipol can bind many drugs. This is a downside to its use and why it isn't a preferred hyperlipidemia agent. In patients with elevated triglycerides, colestipol should be avoided. Colestipol is a bile acid sequestrant that can be used in the management of hyperlipidemia.

By binding bile acid in the gut, colestipol can lower LDL that is bound to bile acid by eliminating it through the feces.

Numerous drug interactions existed as colestipol can bind many drugs. This is a downside to its use and why it isn’t a preferred hyperlipidemia agent.

In patients with elevated triglycerides, colestipol should be avoided.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.



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Colestipol is a bile acid sequestrant that can be used in the management of hyperlipidemia. By binding bile acid in the gut, colestipol can lower LDL that is bound to bile acid by eliminating it through the feces. Colestipol is a bile acid sequestrant that can be used in the management of hyperlipidemia.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> By binding bile acid in the gut, colestipol can lower LDL that is bound to bile acid by eliminating it through the feces. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Numerous drug interactions existed as colestipol can bind many drugs. This is a downside to its use and why it isn't a preferred hyperlipidemia agent.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In patients with elevated triglycerides, colestipol should be avoided. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:00
Metolazone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/metolazone-pharmacology/ Thu, 07 May 2020 15:02:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=722 Metolazone (Zaroxolyn) is a thiazide-like diuretic. It promotes the loss of water and sodium through the kidney. The most common indication I see metolazone used for is for additional fluid loss in heart failure. Potassium must be monitored as it can cause significant hypokalemia which is exacerbated when metolazone is used in combination with loop diuretics. Hyperuricemia is a potential adverse effect with metolazone; this is critical to monitor for in patients at risk for gout attacks. Metolazone (Zaroxolyn) is a thiazide-like diuretic. It promotes the loss of water and sodium through the kidney.

The most common indication I see metolazone used for is for additional fluid loss in heart failure.

Potassium must be monitored as it can cause significant hypokalemia which is exacerbated when metolazone is used in combination with loop diuretics.

Hyperuricemia is a potential adverse effect with metolazone; this is critical to monitor for in patients at risk for gout attacks.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Metolazone (Zaroxolyn) is a thiazide-like diuretic. It promotes the loss of water and sodium through the kidney. The most common indication I see metolazone used for is for additional fluid loss in heart failure. Metolazone (Zaroxolyn) is a thiazide-like diuretic. It promotes the loss of water and sodium through the kidney. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The most common indication I see metolazone used for is for additional fluid loss in heart failure. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Potassium must be monitored as it can cause significant hypokalemia which is exacerbated when metolazone is used in combination with loop diuretics. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hyperuricemia is a potential adverse effect with metolazone; this is critical to monitor for in patients at risk for gout attacks. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:00
Ibandronate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/ibandronate-pharmacology/ Thu, 30 Apr 2020 15:47:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=719 Ibandronate is a bisphosphonate that can be used in the management of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates like ibandronate require a full glass of water for oral administration. Patients should remain upright for at least 30-60 minutes following taking ibandronate to help reduce the risk of esophagitis. Osteonecrosis has rarely been associated with bisphosphonates like ibandronate - I've discussed a couple of risk factors that may place a patient at higher risk. Ibandronate is a bisphosphonate that can be used in the management of osteoporosis.

Bisphosphonates like ibandronate require a full glass of water for oral administration.

Patients should remain upright for at least 30-60 minutes following taking ibandronate to help reduce the risk of esophagitis.

Osteonecrosis has rarely been associated with bisphosphonates like ibandronate – I’ve discussed a couple of risk factors that may place a patient at higher risk.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.



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Ibandronate is a bisphosphonate that can be used in the management of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates like ibandronate require a full glass of water for oral administration. Patients should remain upright for at least 30-60 minutes following taki... Ibandronate is a bisphosphonate that can be used in the management of osteoporosis. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Bisphosphonates like ibandronate require a full glass of water for oral administration. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Patients should remain upright for at least 30-60 minutes following taking ibandronate to help reduce the risk of esophagitis. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Osteonecrosis has rarely been associated with bisphosphonates like ibandronate - I've discussed a couple of risk factors that may place a patient at higher risk. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:18
Fluticasone, Umeclidinium, and Vilanterol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/fluticasone-umeclidinium-and-vilanterol-pharmacology/ Thu, 23 Apr 2020 13:44:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=715 Fluticasone, Umeclidinium, and Vilanterol is a combination medication used in the setting of COPD. I discuss the pharmacology of this agent further in this episode. Fluticasone is the inhaled corticosteroid portion of the drug while umeclidinium is a LAMA and vilanterol is a LABA medication. Drug interactions aren't incredibly common or strongly clinically significant, but I discuss some of them with Trelegy Ellipta. Having a once-daily dose can be advantageous to help improve patient adherence. Fluticasone, umeclidinium, and vilanterol comes as a once-daily combination. Fluticasone, Umeclidinium, and Vilanterol is a combination medication used in the setting of COPD. I discuss the pharmacology of this agent further in this episode.

Fluticasone is the inhaled corticosteroid portion of the drug while umeclidinium is a LAMA and vilanterol is a LABA medication.

Drug interactions aren’t incredibly common or strongly clinically significant, but I discuss some of them with Trelegy Ellipta.

Having a once-daily dose can be advantageous to help improve patient adherence. Fluticasone, umeclidinium, and vilanterol comes as a once-daily combination.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Fluticasone, Umeclidinium, and Vilanterol is a combination medication used in the setting of COPD. I discuss the pharmacology of this agent further in this episode. Fluticasone is the inhaled corticosteroid portion of the drug while umeclidinium is... Fluticasone, Umeclidinium, and Vilanterol is a combination medication used in the setting of COPD. I discuss the pharmacology of this agent further in this episode. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Fluticasone is the inhaled corticosteroid portion of the drug while umeclidinium is a LAMA and vilanterol is a LABA medication. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Drug interactions aren't incredibly common or strongly clinically significant, but I discuss some of them with Trelegy Ellipta. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Having a once-daily dose can be advantageous to help improve patient adherence. Fluticasone, umeclidinium, and vilanterol comes as a once-daily combination. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:51
Hyoscyamine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/hyoscyamine-pharmacology/ Thu, 16 Apr 2020 14:17:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=711 Hyoscyamine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for GI problems like spasms and pain associated with IBS. Because of the highly anticholinergic nature of hyoscyamine, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation. Be aware of the risk for the prescribing cascade with hyoscyamine. Saliva substitutes for dry mouth, artificial tears for dry eyes, etc. Sedation is a concern with hyoscyamine and this can be exacerbated by drugs like benzodiazepines, opioids, and older antihistamines. Hyoscyamine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for GI problems like spasms and pain associated with IBS.

Because of the highly anticholinergic nature of hyoscyamine, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation.

Be aware of the risk for the prescribing cascade with hyoscyamine. Saliva substitutes for dry mouth, artificial tears for dry eyes, etc.

Sedation is a concern with hyoscyamine and this can be exacerbated by drugs like benzodiazepines, opioids, and older antihistamines.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Hyoscyamine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for GI problems like spasms and pain associated with IBS. Because of the highly anticholinergic nature of hyoscyamine, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, Hyoscyamine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for GI problems like spasms and pain associated with IBS.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because of the highly anticholinergic nature of hyoscyamine, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be aware of the risk for the prescribing cascade with hyoscyamine. Saliva substitutes for dry mouth, artificial tears for dry eyes, etc.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Sedation is a concern with hyoscyamine and this can be exacerbated by drugs like benzodiazepines, opioids, and older antihistamines. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:09
Calcium Acetate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/calcium-acetate-pharmacology/ Thu, 09 Apr 2020 15:47:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=707 Calcium Acetate (PhosLo) is used in the management of hyperphosphatemia associated with CKD. Important monitoring parameters for calcium acetate include phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and renal function. There are numerous binding interactions with calcium acetate. It can reduce concentrations of some HIV drugs, antibiotics, and thyroid supplements. I discuss more examples in the podcast. Thiazide diuretic in combination with calcium acetate may increase the risk for hypercalcemia. Calcium Acetate (PhosLo) is used in the management of hyperphosphatemia associated with CKD.

Important monitoring parameters for calcium acetate include phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and renal function.

There are numerous binding interactions with calcium acetate. It can reduce concentrations of some HIV drugs, antibiotics, and thyroid supplements. I discuss more examples in the podcast.

Thiazide diuretic in combination with calcium acetate may increase the risk for hypercalcemia.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Calcium Acetate (PhosLo) is used in the management of hyperphosphatemia associated with CKD. Important monitoring parameters for calcium acetate include phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and renal function. There are numerous binding interactions with ca... Calcium Acetate (PhosLo) is used in the management of hyperphosphatemia associated with CKD.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Important monitoring parameters for calcium acetate include phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and renal function.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are numerous binding interactions with calcium acetate. It can reduce concentrations of some HIV drugs, antibiotics, and thyroid supplements. I discuss more examples in the podcast. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Thiazide diuretic in combination with calcium acetate may increase the risk for hypercalcemia. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:17
Nortriptyline Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/nortriptyline-pharmacology/ Thu, 02 Apr 2020 12:37:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=703 Nortriptyline is a TCA that can be used for depression and various pain syndromes. I discuss other less common diagnoses in this podcast episode as well. There are a lot of drug interactions with nortriptyline. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, can have additive anticholinergic effects and has been associated with QTc prolongation. Nortriptyline is very anticholinergic and can blunt the effects of dementia medications. Dry mouth, dry eyes, sedation, urinary retention, and constipation are a few of the more common adverse effects of nortriptyline. Nortriptyline is a TCA that can be used for depression and various pain syndromes. I discuss other less common diagnoses in this podcast episode as well.

There are a lot of drug interactions with nortriptyline. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, can have additive anticholinergic effects and has been associated with QTc prolongation.

Nortriptyline is very anticholinergic and can blunt the effects of dementia medications.

Dry mouth, dry eyes, sedation, urinary retention, and constipation are a few of the more common adverse effects of nortriptyline.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Nortriptyline is a TCA that can be used for depression and various pain syndromes. I discuss other less common diagnoses in this podcast episode as well. There are a lot of drug interactions with nortriptyline. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, Nortriptyline is a TCA that can be used for depression and various pain syndromes. I discuss other less common diagnoses in this podcast episode as well.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are a lot of drug interactions with nortriptyline. It is metabolized by CYP2D6, can have additive anticholinergic effects and has been associated with QTc prolongation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nortriptyline is very anticholinergic and can blunt the effects of dementia medications. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Dry mouth, dry eyes, sedation, urinary retention, and constipation are a few of the more common adverse effects of nortriptyline. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:07
Hydroxychloroquine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/hydroxychloroquine-pharmacology/ Fri, 27 Mar 2020 09:26:19 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=698 Hydroxychloroquine is classified as a DMARD and when used chronically, can be helpful in managing rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus. There have been reports of QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine. While not incredibly common, it is important to remember this consideration in patients at risk for QTc prolongation. Hydroxychloroquine is associated with causing retinopathy. Routine eye exams for monitoring purposes are critical. Rarely, hydroxychloroquine can be associated with blood disorders like neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. In addition, alterations in liver function have been reported. Hydroxychloroquine is classified as a DMARD and when used chronically, can be helpful in managing rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus.

There have been reports of QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine. While not incredibly common, it is important to remember this consideration in patients at risk for QTc prolongation.

Hydroxychloroquine is associated with causing retinopathy. Routine eye exams for monitoring purposes are critical.

Rarely, hydroxychloroquine can be associated with blood disorders like neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. In addition, alterations in liver function have been reported.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Hydroxychloroquine is classified as a DMARD and when used chronically, can be helpful in managing rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus. There have been reports of QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine. While not incredibly common, Hydroxychloroquine is classified as a DMARD and when used chronically, can be helpful in managing rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There have been reports of QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine. While not incredibly common, it is important to remember this consideration in patients at risk for QTc prolongation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hydroxychloroquine is associated with causing retinopathy. Routine eye exams for monitoring purposes are critical. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rarely, hydroxychloroquine can be associated with blood disorders like neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. In addition, alterations in liver function have been reported. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 15:08
Latanoprost Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/latanoprost-pharmacology/ Thu, 19 Mar 2020 15:06:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=693 Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2 analog that can help reduce intraocular pressure and manage glaucoma. Excessive eyelash growth is a potential adverse effect of latanoprost, although some patients may appreciate this. Patients with a lighter color iris may notice that their eyes are turning more brown with the chronic use of latanoprost. Corticosteroids are known to increase intraocular pressure and potentially oppose the beneficial effects of latanoprost. Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2 analog that can help reduce intraocular pressure and manage glaucoma.

Excessive eyelash growth is a potential adverse effect of latanoprost, although some patients may appreciate this.

Patients with a lighter color iris may notice that their eyes are turning more brown with the chronic use of latanoprost.

Corticosteroids are known to increase intraocular pressure and potentially oppose the beneficial effects of latanoprost.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.



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Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2 analog that can help reduce intraocular pressure and manage glaucoma. Excessive eyelash growth is a potential adverse effect of latanoprost, although some patients may appreciate this. Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2 analog that can help reduce intraocular pressure and manage glaucoma.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Excessive eyelash growth is a potential adverse effect of latanoprost, although some patients may appreciate this.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Patients with a lighter color iris may notice that their eyes are turning more brown with the chronic use of latanoprost. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Corticosteroids are known to increase intraocular pressure and potentially oppose the beneficial effects of latanoprost. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:07
Terbinafine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/terbinafine-pharmacology/ Thu, 12 Mar 2020 18:31:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=689 Terbinafine can inhibit CYP2D6 which plays an important role in the metabolism of many drugs such as metoprolol, fluoxetine, and clozapine. With terbinafine's ability to inhibit CYP2D6, it can also increase the risk of treatment failure with drugs like tamoxifen. When using anti-fungal drugs like terbinafine, remember that fungal infections can often require more time to treat. Terbinafine has the potential to cause liver impairment. I discuss this further on the podcast. Terbinafine can inhibit CYP2D6 which plays an important role in the metabolism of many drugs such as metoprolol, fluoxetine, and clozapine.

With terbinafine’s ability to inhibit CYP2D6, it can also increase the risk of treatment failure with drugs like tamoxifen.

When using anti-fungal drugs like terbinafine, remember that fungal infections can often require more time to treat.

Terbinafine has the potential to cause liver impairment. I discuss this further on the podcast.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.



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Terbinafine can inhibit CYP2D6 which plays an important role in the metabolism of many drugs such as metoprolol, fluoxetine, and clozapine. With terbinafine's ability to inhibit CYP2D6, it can also increase the risk of treatment failure with drugs ... Terbinafine can inhibit CYP2D6 which plays an important role in the metabolism of many drugs such as metoprolol, fluoxetine, and clozapine. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> With terbinafine's ability to inhibit CYP2D6, it can also increase the risk of treatment failure with drugs like tamoxifen. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> When using anti-fungal drugs like terbinafine, remember that fungal infections can often require more time to treat. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Terbinafine has the potential to cause liver impairment. I discuss this further on the podcast. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:20
Alendronate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/alendronate-pharmacology/ Thu, 05 Mar 2020 19:15:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=686 Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is used in the management of osteoporosis. In this episode, I discuss osteonecrosis risk and what are some of the risk factors that may increase the chances of this very rare adverse effect. Binding interactions are so critical with alendronate. They can essentially make the drug useless. Esophageal irritation and ulceration is one of the possible complications with the use of alendronate. Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is used in the management of osteoporosis.

In this episode, I discuss osteonecrosis risk and what are some of the risk factors that may increase the chances of this very rare adverse effect.

Binding interactions are so critical with alendronate. They can essentially make the drug useless.

Esophageal irritation and ulceration is one of the possible complications with the use of alendronate.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is used in the management of osteoporosis. In this episode, I discuss osteonecrosis risk and what are some of the risk factors that may increase the chances of this very rare adverse effect. Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is used in the management of osteoporosis. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In this episode, I discuss osteonecrosis risk and what are some of the risk factors that may increase the chances of this very rare adverse effect.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Binding interactions are so critical with alendronate. They can essentially make the drug useless.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Esophageal irritation and ulceration is one of the possible complications with the use of alendronate. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:52
Diazepam Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/diazepam-pharmacology/ Thu, 27 Feb 2020 19:18:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=682 Diazepam has numerous dosage forms. There are rectal, injectable, and oral formulations of the drug that are commonly used in clinical practice. Diazepam has 2 major metabolic pathways. It is broken down primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, leaving open the potential for numerous drug interactions. I discuss this further in the podcast. Diazepam is on the Beers list because it has a tendency to accumulate in the geriatric patient population and cause adverse effects like sedation, confusion, and falls. Respiratory depression, coma, and death are significantly more likely in overdose situations where opioids are used in combination with benzodiazepines like diazepam. Diazepam has numerous dosage forms. There are rectal, injectable, and oral formulations of the drug that are commonly used in clinical practice.

Diazepam has 2 major metabolic pathways. It is broken down primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, leaving open the potential for numerous drug interactions. I discuss this further in the podcast.

Diazepam is on the Beers list because it has a tendency to accumulate in the geriatric patient population and cause adverse effects like sedation, confusion, and falls.

Respiratory depression, coma, and death are significantly more likely in overdose situations where opioids are used in combination with benzodiazepines like diazepam.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Diazepam has numerous dosage forms. There are rectal, injectable, and oral formulations of the drug that are commonly used in clinical practice. Diazepam has 2 major metabolic pathways. It is broken down primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, Diazepam has numerous dosage forms. There are rectal, injectable, and oral formulations of the drug that are commonly used in clinical practice. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Diazepam has 2 major metabolic pathways. It is broken down primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, leaving open the potential for numerous drug interactions. I discuss this further in the podcast. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Diazepam is on the Beers list because it has a tendency to accumulate in the geriatric patient population and cause adverse effects like sedation, confusion, and falls. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Respiratory depression, coma, and death are significantly more likely in overdose situations where opioids are used in combination with benzodiazepines like diazepam. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 15:19
Dicyclomine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/dicyclomine-pharmacology/ Thu, 20 Feb 2020 19:07:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=677 Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic agent that is used to help manage GI pain associated with IBS. Dicyclomine has a very short half-life which means that it can be dosed multiple times per day. Be careful with patients who have predominant constipation with their IBS as dicyclomine can exacerbate this. Bentyl is the brand name of dicyclomine. This drug blocks the action of acetylcholine. Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic agent that is used to help manage GI pain associated with IBS.

Dicyclomine has a very short half-life which means that it can be dosed multiple times per day.

Be careful with patients who have predominant constipation with their IBS as dicyclomine can exacerbate this.

Bentyl is the brand name of dicyclomine. This drug blocks the action of acetylcholine.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic agent that is used to help manage GI pain associated with IBS. Dicyclomine has a very short half-life which means that it can be dosed multiple times per day. Be careful with patients who have predominant const... Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic agent that is used to help manage GI pain associated with IBS. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Dicyclomine has a very short half-life which means that it can be dosed multiple times per day. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be careful with patients who have predominant constipation with their IBS as dicyclomine can exacerbate this. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Bentyl is the brand name of dicyclomine. This drug blocks the action of acetylcholine. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:19
Diltiazem Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/diltiazem-pharmacology/ Thu, 13 Feb 2020 19:37:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=666 Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can be used in atrial fibrillation as well as hypertension. One big downside to diltiazem is that it does have a few drug interactions via CYP3A4. Aripiprazole, apixaban, and certain statins are all examples of medication that can have concentrations increased by adding diltiazem to a patient's regimen. Diltiazem works a little differently from dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (like amlodipine) as it works on the heart AND the vessels. Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can be used in atrial fibrillation as well as hypertension.

One big downside to diltiazem is that it does have a few drug interactions via CYP3A4.

Aripiprazole, apixaban, and certain statins are all examples of medication that can have concentrations increased by adding diltiazem to a patient’s regimen.

Diltiazem works a little differently from dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (like amlodipine) as it works on the heart AND the vessels.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can be used in atrial fibrillation as well as hypertension. One big downside to diltiazem is that it does have a few drug interactions via CYP3A4. Aripiprazole, apixaban, Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can be used in atrial fibrillation as well as hypertension.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One big downside to diltiazem is that it does have a few drug interactions via CYP3A4. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Aripiprazole, apixaban, and certain statins are all examples of medication that can have concentrations increased by adding diltiazem to a patient's regimen. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Diltiazem works a little differently from dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (like amlodipine) as it works on the heart AND the vessels. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:21
Zolpidem Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/zolpidem-pharmacology/ Thu, 06 Feb 2020 16:12:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=663 Zolpidem enhances the action of GABA which is an inhibitor neurotransmitter. Zolpidem metabolism can be impacted by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concentrations can rise on account of this potential interaction. It is important to remember to go slowly when tapering off zolpidem. Particularly in patients who have been on the drug for a long time or those who are on higher doses. Abnormal sleeping behaviors like sleep-walking, eating, or driving have been reported with zolpidem. Remember that CNS depressant drug interactions can happen with zolpidem. Take note of any other sedating medications prior to starting zolpidem. Zolpidem enhances the action of GABA which is an inhibitor neurotransmitter.

Zolpidem metabolism can be impacted by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concentrations can rise on account of this potential interaction.

It is important to remember to go slowly when tapering off zolpidem. Particularly in patients who have been on the drug for a long time or those who are on higher doses.

Abnormal sleeping behaviors like sleep-walking, eating, or driving have been reported with zolpidem.

Remember that CNS depressant drug interactions can happen with zolpidem. Take note of any other sedating medications prior to starting zolpidem.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Zolpidem enhances the action of GABA which is an inhibitor neurotransmitter. Zolpidem metabolism can be impacted by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concentrations can rise on account of this potential interaction. Zolpidem enhances the action of GABA which is an inhibitor neurotransmitter.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Zolpidem metabolism can be impacted by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concentrations can rise on account of this potential interaction.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is important to remember to go slowly when tapering off zolpidem. Particularly in patients who have been on the drug for a long time or those who are on higher doses. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Abnormal sleeping behaviors like sleep-walking, eating, or driving have been reported with zolpidem. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Remember that CNS depressant drug interactions can happen with zolpidem. Take note of any other sedating medications prior to starting zolpidem. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 15:54
Oral Semaglutide Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/oral-semaglutide-pharmacology/ Thu, 30 Jan 2020 18:08:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=657 On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of oral semaglutide. It is a GLP-1 agonist that is the first one in the class to have an oral formulation. There is a recommended dose titration with oral semaglutide that can take a month or two to get therapeutic doses. I disucss this further in this episode. The most common adverse effect of oral semaglutide is nausea. Oral semaglutide is dosed once daily which is nice to try to maximize patient adherence. On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of oral semaglutide. It is a GLP-1 agonist that is the first one in the class to have an oral formulation.

There is a recommended dose titration with oral semaglutide that can take a month or two to get therapeutic doses. I disucss this further in this episode.

The most common adverse effect of oral semaglutide is nausea.

Oral semaglutide is dosed once daily which is nice to try to maximize patient adherence.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of oral semaglutide. It is a GLP-1 agonist that is the first one in the class to have an oral formulation. There is a recommended dose titration with oral semaglutide that can take a month or two to get th... On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of oral semaglutide. It is a GLP-1 agonist that is the first one in the class to have an oral formulation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is a recommended dose titration with oral semaglutide that can take a month or two to get therapeutic doses. I disucss this further in this episode. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The most common adverse effect of oral semaglutide is nausea. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Oral semaglutide is dosed once daily which is nice to try to maximize patient adherence. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:54
Probenecid Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/probenecid-pharmacology/ Thu, 23 Jan 2020 19:55:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=652 Patients with G6PD deficiency who are taking probenecid are at increased risk for hemolytic anemia. In a patient taking probenecid, they need to have adequate kidney function for the drug to work. GI upset is likely the most common adverse effect of probenecid. It can be given with food. Probenecid can raise the concentrations of many common antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins. Remember that there are many medications that can oppose the beneficial effects of probenecid. Thiazides, niacin, and some immunosuppressants can raise uric acid. Patients with G6PD deficiency who are taking probenecid are at increased risk for hemolytic anemia.

In a patient taking probenecid, they need to have adequate kidney function for the drug to work.

GI upset is likely the most common adverse effect of probenecid. It can be given with food.

Probenecid can raise the concentrations of many common antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins.

Remember that there are many medications that can oppose the beneficial effects of probenecid. Thiazides, niacin, and some immunosuppressants can raise uric acid.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.



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Patients with G6PD deficiency who are taking probenecid are at increased risk for hemolytic anemia. In a patient taking probenecid, they need to have adequate kidney function for the drug to work. GI upset is likely the most common adverse effe... Patients with G6PD deficiency who are taking probenecid are at increased risk for hemolytic anemia. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In a patient taking probenecid, they need to have adequate kidney function for the drug to work. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GI upset is likely the most common adverse effect of probenecid. It can be given with food. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Probenecid can raise the concentrations of many common antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Remember that there are many medications that can oppose the beneficial effects of probenecid. Thiazides, niacin, and some immunosuppressants can raise uric acid. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:21
Nicotine Patch Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/nicotine-patch-pharmacology/ Thu, 16 Jan 2020 19:31:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=642 Nicotine replacement therapy is an important tool in helping our patients quit smoking. There are lots of clinical pearls involving the pharmacology of nicotine patches and I explore them in this episode. Nicotine patches differ from the gum and other acute relief forms in that they are intended to provide a consistent level of nicotine in the body. The initial dosing of nicotine patches is dependent upon the number of cigarettes smoked by the patient. I discuss it further in the podcast. When applying nicotine patches, it is important to remember to utilize a clean, non-hairy area to ensure the patch adheres to the skin appropriately. Nicotine replacement therapy is an important tool in helping our patients quit smoking. There are lots of clinical pearls involving the pharmacology of nicotine patches and I explore them in this episode.

Nicotine patches differ from the gum and other acute relief forms in that they are intended to provide a consistent level of nicotine in the body.

The initial dosing of nicotine patches is dependent upon the number of cigarettes smoked by the patient. I discuss it further in the podcast.

When applying nicotine patches, it is important to remember to utilize a clean, non-hairy area to ensure the patch adheres to the skin appropriately.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Nicotine replacement therapy is an important tool in helping our patients quit smoking. There are lots of clinical pearls involving the pharmacology of nicotine patches and I explore them in this episode. Nicotine replacement therapy is an important tool in helping our patients quit smoking. There are lots of clinical pearls involving the pharmacology of nicotine patches and I explore them in this episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nicotine patches differ from the gum and other acute relief forms in that they are intended to provide a consistent level of nicotine in the body.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The initial dosing of nicotine patches is dependent upon the number of cigarettes smoked by the patient. I discuss it further in the podcast. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> When applying nicotine patches, it is important to remember to utilize a clean, non-hairy area to ensure the patch adheres to the skin appropriately. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 16:24
Doxepin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/doxepin-pharmacology/ Thu, 09 Jan 2020 20:11:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=646 Doxepin is under the class of tricyclic antidepressants. It can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. In addition to the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition mechanism, doxepin also has antihistamine type effects. Because of the anticholinergic activity of doxepin, it is recommended to avoid this medication in the elderly, particularly at high doses. Be aware that anticholinergics like doxepin can reduce the benefit of dementia medications. CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the metabolism of doxepin and drugs like bupropion that inhibit CYP2D6 can increase the concentrations of doxepin. Doxepin is under the class of tricyclic antidepressants. It can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.

In addition to the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition mechanism, doxepin also has antihistamine type effects.

Because of the anticholinergic activity of doxepin, it is recommended to avoid this medication in the elderly, particularly at high doses.

Be aware that anticholinergics like doxepin can reduce the benefit of dementia medications.

CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the metabolism of doxepin and drugs like bupropion that inhibit CYP2D6 can increase the concentrations of doxepin.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Doxepin is under the class of tricyclic antidepressants. It can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. In addition to the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition mechanism, doxepin also has antihistamine type effects. Doxepin is under the class of tricyclic antidepressants. It can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In addition to the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition mechanism, doxepin also has antihistamine type effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because of the anticholinergic activity of doxepin, it is recommended to avoid this medication in the elderly, particularly at high doses. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be aware that anticholinergics like doxepin can reduce the benefit of dementia medications. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the metabolism of doxepin and drugs like bupropion that inhibit CYP2D6 can increase the concentrations of doxepin. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:42
Atomoxetine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/atomoxetine-pharmacology/ Thu, 02 Jan 2020 17:15:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=637 Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that can be used in the management of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a non-controlled substance option for patients seeking this alternative to traditional stimulants. CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the breakdown of atomoxetine. CYP2D6 inhibition or poor metabolizers via CYP2D6 can lead to higher concentrations of atomoxetine and put our patients at greater risk for adverse effects. Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that can be used in the management of ADHD.

Atomoxetine is a non-controlled substance option for patients seeking this alternative to traditional stimulants.

CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the breakdown of atomoxetine.

CYP2D6 inhibition or poor metabolizers via CYP2D6 can lead to higher concentrations of atomoxetine and put our patients at greater risk for adverse effects.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that can be used in the management of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a non-controlled substance option for patients seeking this alternative to traditional stimulants. Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that can be used in the management of ADHD.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Atomoxetine is a non-controlled substance option for patients seeking this alternative to traditional stimulants. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CYP2D6 is an important enzyme in the breakdown of atomoxetine. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CYP2D6 inhibition or poor metabolizers via CYP2D6 can lead to higher concentrations of atomoxetine and put our patients at greater risk for adverse effects. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:55
Fluoxetine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/fluoxetine-pharmacology/ Thu, 26 Dec 2019 18:36:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=633 Fluoxetine is an SSRI used in the management of depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, and other psychiatric conditions. Fluoxetine has a very long half-life which can impact clinical management. I discuss how this matters in this podcast episode. Fluoxetine inhibits CYP2D6 which can alter the concentrations of many drugs. Prodrugs like codeine and tamoxifen can have their effects reduced because of fluoxetine. I explain this further in the episode. By inhibiting CYP2D6 concentrations of many drugs can be raised by the use of fluoxetine. Fluoxetine is an SSRI used in the management of depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, and other psychiatric conditions.

Fluoxetine has a very long half-life which can impact clinical management. I discuss how this matters in this podcast episode.

Fluoxetine inhibits CYP2D6 which can alter the concentrations of many drugs.

Prodrugs like codeine and tamoxifen can have their effects reduced because of fluoxetine. I explain this further in the episode.

By inhibiting CYP2D6 concentrations of many drugs can be raised by the use of fluoxetine.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Fluoxetine is an SSRI used in the management of depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, and other psychiatric conditions. Fluoxetine has a very long half-life which can impact clinical management. I discuss how this matters in this podcast episode. Fluoxetine is an SSRI used in the management of depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, and other psychiatric conditions.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Fluoxetine has a very long half-life which can impact clinical management. I discuss how this matters in this podcast episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Fluoxetine inhibits CYP2D6 which can alter the concentrations of many drugs. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Prodrugs like codeine and tamoxifen can have their effects reduced because of fluoxetine. I explain this further in the episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> By inhibiting CYP2D6 concentrations of many drugs can be raised by the use of fluoxetine. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:00
Metoprolol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/metoprolol-pharmacology/ Thu, 19 Dec 2019 20:15:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=626 Metoprolol is a beta-blocker commonly used in the management of hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. There is an extended release dosage form and immediate release dosage form with metoprolol. The advantage of the extended release product is that it doesn't require as frequent dosing. Metoprolol is selective for beta-1 receptors. It is less likely to interact with asthma medications. CYP2D6 plays an important role in breaking down metoprolol. Alterations in this enzyme's activity can alter concentrations of the drug. Metoprolol is a beta-blocker commonly used in the management of hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

There is an extended release dosage form and immediate release dosage form with metoprolol. The advantage of the extended release product is that it doesn’t require as frequent dosing.

Metoprolol is selective for beta-1 receptors. It is less likely to interact with asthma medications.

CYP2D6 plays an important role in breaking down metoprolol. Alterations in this enzyme’s activity can alter concentrations of the drug.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Metoprolol is a beta-blocker commonly used in the management of hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. There is an extended release dosage form and immediate release dosage form with metoprolol. Metoprolol is a beta-blocker commonly used in the management of hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is an extended release dosage form and immediate release dosage form with metoprolol. The advantage of the extended release product is that it doesn't require as frequent dosing. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Metoprolol is selective for beta-1 receptors. It is less likely to interact with asthma medications. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CYP2D6 plays an important role in breaking down metoprolol. Alterations in this enzyme's activity can alter concentrations of the drug. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:56
Mometasone Pharmacology (Nasal and Oral Inhalation) https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/mometasone-pharmacology-nasal-and-oral-inhalation/ Thu, 12 Dec 2019 14:29:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=623 Mometasone is an inhaled corticosteroid and a nasal corticosteroid. The inhaled steroid is called Asmanex by brand name and the nasal version is Nasonex. Nasonex is primarily used in the management of allergic rhinitis and can help with nasal congestion type symptoms. Remember that nasal mometasone takes a little while to have its full effect. It can take up to a week or two to provide its maximum benefit. Systemic absorption of both nasal and oral inhalation mometasone is very low at less than 1%. Mometasone is an inhaled corticosteroid and a nasal corticosteroid. The inhaled steroid is called Asmanex by brand name and the nasal version is Nasonex.

Nasonex is primarily used in the management of allergic rhinitis and can help with nasal congestion type symptoms.

Remember that nasal mometasone takes a little while to have its full effect. It can take up to a week or two to provide its maximum benefit.

Systemic absorption of both nasal and oral inhalation mometasone is very low at less than 1%.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Mometasone is an inhaled corticosteroid and a nasal corticosteroid. The inhaled steroid is called Asmanex by brand name and the nasal version is Nasonex. Nasonex is primarily used in the management of allergic rhinitis and can help with nasal conge... Mometasone is an inhaled corticosteroid and a nasal corticosteroid. The inhaled steroid is called Asmanex by brand name and the nasal version is Nasonex. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nasonex is primarily used in the management of allergic rhinitis and can help with nasal congestion type symptoms. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Remember that nasal mometasone takes a little while to have its full effect. It can take up to a week or two to provide its maximum benefit. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Systemic absorption of both nasal and oral inhalation mometasone is very low at less than 1%. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:47
Methylphenidate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/methylphenidate-pharmacology/ Thu, 05 Dec 2019 18:55:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=619 Methylphenidate has an FDA approved indication for ADHD. In this podcast episode, I cover the pharmacology, adverse effects, kinetics, and drug interaction. Because methylphenidate has stimulant type effects, it can raise blood pressure and heart rate. Weight, blood pressure, and pulse are important monitoring parameters in patients taking a stimulant type medication like methylphenidate. There are numerous dosage forms of methylphenidate which can help accommodate many different patients' needs. Methylphenidate has an FDA approved indication for ADHD. In this podcast episode, I cover the pharmacology, adverse effects, kinetics, and drug interaction.

Because methylphenidate has stimulant type effects, it can raise blood pressure and heart rate.

Weight, blood pressure, and pulse are important monitoring parameters in patients taking a stimulant type medication like methylphenidate.

There are numerous dosage forms of methylphenidate which can help accommodate many different patients’ needs.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Methylphenidate has an FDA approved indication for ADHD. In this podcast episode, I cover the pharmacology, adverse effects, kinetics, and drug interaction. Because methylphenidate has stimulant type effects, Methylphenidate has an FDA approved indication for ADHD. In this podcast episode, I cover the pharmacology, adverse effects, kinetics, and drug interaction. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because methylphenidate has stimulant type effects, it can raise blood pressure and heart rate. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Weight, blood pressure, and pulse are important monitoring parameters in patients taking a stimulant type medication like methylphenidate.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are numerous dosage forms of methylphenidate which can help accommodate many different patients' needs. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:15
Cilostazol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/cilostazol-pharmacology/ Thu, 28 Nov 2019 16:29:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=614 Cilostazol has antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects. Because of this, it can manage symptoms of intermittent claudication. GI upset, headache, and edema are common adverse effects associated with the use of cilostazol. Cilostazol is recommended to be given on an empty stomach. In patients with heart failure, cilostazol use is contraindicated. CYP3A4 interactions are prevalent with cilostazol. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 can increase the concentrations of cilostazol. Cilostazol has antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects. Because of this, it can manage symptoms of intermittent claudication.

GI upset, headache, and edema are common adverse effects associated with the use of cilostazol.

Cilostazol is recommended to be given on an empty stomach.

In patients with heart failure, cilostazol use is contraindicated.

CYP3A4 interactions are prevalent with cilostazol. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 can increase the concentrations of cilostazol.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Cilostazol has antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects. Because of this, it can manage symptoms of intermittent claudication. GI upset, headache, and edema are common adverse effects associated with the use of cilostazol. Cilostazol has antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects. Because of this, it can manage symptoms of intermittent claudication. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GI upset, headache, and edema are common adverse effects associated with the use of cilostazol.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cilostazol is recommended to be given on an empty stomach. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In patients with heart failure, cilostazol use is contraindicated. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CYP3A4 interactions are prevalent with cilostazol. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 can increase the concentrations of cilostazol. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:35
Metronidazole Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/metronidazole-pharmacology/ Thu, 21 Nov 2019 13:54:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=611 Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic that is used for various infections. Metronidazole can certainly cause GI upset like most antibiotics, but uniquely may also cause a metallic taste. Metronidazole is also rarely associated with CNS changes and can induce the potential for peripheral neuropathy. Patients should avoid alcohol with the use of metronidazole and this is on account for the possibility of a disulfiram reaction. I discuss some of the symptoms of this reaction in the podcast. Metronidazole can substantially raise the concentrations of warfarin. INR monitor and a reduction in dose of warfarin may be necessary. Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic that is used for various infections.

Metronidazole can certainly cause GI upset like most antibiotics, but uniquely may also cause a metallic taste.

Metronidazole is also rarely associated with CNS changes and can induce the potential for peripheral neuropathy.

Patients should avoid alcohol with the use of metronidazole and this is on account for the possibility of a disulfiram reaction. I discuss some of the symptoms of this reaction in the podcast.

Metronidazole can substantially raise the concentrations of warfarin. INR monitor and a reduction in dose of warfarin may be necessary.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic that is used for various infections. Metronidazole can certainly cause GI upset like most antibiotics, but uniquely may also cause a metallic taste. Metronidazole is also rarely associated with CNS change... Metronidazole (Flagyl) is an antibiotic that is used for various infections. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Metronidazole can certainly cause GI upset like most antibiotics, but uniquely may also cause a metallic taste. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Metronidazole is also rarely associated with CNS changes and can induce the potential for peripheral neuropathy. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Patients should avoid alcohol with the use of metronidazole and this is on account for the possibility of a disulfiram reaction. I discuss some of the symptoms of this reaction in the podcast. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Metronidazole can substantially raise the concentrations of warfarin. INR monitor and a reduction in dose of warfarin may be necessary. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:54
Testosterone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/testosterone-pharmacology/ Thu, 14 Nov 2019 15:04:19 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=601 Testosterone replacement is primarily utilized in patients with hypogonadism. I discuss testosterone pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions on this podcast episode. Testosterone is a controlled substance because it is most often diverted for its potential to build muscle in athletes for competitive sports. There is cardiovascular risks associated with the use of testosterone. Testosterone can raise blood pressure and also raise cholesterol levels which may be a contributing factor to its potential to cause cardiovascular events. Testosterone replacement is primarily utilized in patients with hypogonadism. I discuss testosterone pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions on this podcast episode.

Testosterone is a controlled substance because it is most often diverted for its potential to build muscle in athletes for competitive sports.

There is cardiovascular risks associated with the use of testosterone.

Testosterone can raise blood pressure and also raise cholesterol levels which may be a contributing factor to its potential to cause cardiovascular events.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Testosterone replacement is primarily utilized in patients with hypogonadism. I discuss testosterone pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions on this podcast episode. Testosterone is a controlled substance because it is most often divert... Testosterone replacement is primarily utilized in patients with hypogonadism. I discuss testosterone pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions on this podcast episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Testosterone is a controlled substance because it is most often diverted for its potential to build muscle in athletes for competitive sports.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is cardiovascular risks associated with the use of testosterone. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Testosterone can raise blood pressure and also raise cholesterol levels which may be a contributing factor to its potential to cause cardiovascular events. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:00
Morphine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/morphine-pharmacology/ Thu, 07 Nov 2019 18:07:34 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=596 Morphine has opioid agonist activity that can cause respiratory depression and death in overdose. Morphine-6-glucuronide is the metabolite that can accumulate and cause CNS toxicity in renal failure. Be aware of CNS depressants that may enhance the effect of morphine and other opioids. Some examples of CNS depressants include gabapentin, benzodiazepines, older antihistamine, skeletal muscle relaxants, and pregabalin. Opioid withdrawal is a significant concern when patients have their morphine or another opioid abruptly stopped. Some signs of withdrawal include agitation, mood swings, anxiety, sweating, GI upset, pain, and insomnia. Morphine has opioid agonist activity that can cause respiratory depression and death in overdose.

Morphine-6-glucuronide is the metabolite that can accumulate and cause CNS toxicity in renal failure.

Be aware of CNS depressants that may enhance the effect of morphine and other opioids. Some examples of CNS depressants include gabapentin, benzodiazepines, older antihistamine, skeletal muscle relaxants, and pregabalin.

Opioid withdrawal is a significant concern when patients have their morphine or another opioid abruptly stopped. Some signs of withdrawal include agitation, mood swings, anxiety, sweating, GI upset, pain, and insomnia.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Morphine has opioid agonist activity that can cause respiratory depression and death in overdose. Morphine-6-glucuronide is the metabolite that can accumulate and cause CNS toxicity in renal failure. Morphine has opioid agonist activity that can cause respiratory depression and death in overdose.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Morphine-6-glucuronide is the metabolite that can accumulate and cause CNS toxicity in renal failure. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be aware of CNS depressants that may enhance the effect of morphine and other opioids. Some examples of CNS depressants include gabapentin, benzodiazepines, older antihistamine, skeletal muscle relaxants, and pregabalin. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Opioid withdrawal is a significant concern when patients have their morphine or another opioid abruptly stopped. Some signs of withdrawal include agitation, mood swings, anxiety, sweating, GI upset, pain, and insomnia. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:41
Prasugrel Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/prasugrel-pharmacology/ Thu, 31 Oct 2019 18:44:23 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=592 Prasugrel is a P2Y12 inhibitor that is used in the setting of ACS. Be aware of patients who may be taking over the counter medications that can increase their bleed risk while taking prasugrel. Prasugrel is on the Beers list and in general, should be avoided in most situations for patients who are 75 years of age or older. Morphine has the potential to impact antiplatelet agents like prasugrel and make them less effective. Be sure this is clinically considered prior to using morphine with prasugrel. Prasugrel is a P2Y12 inhibitor that is used in the setting of ACS.

Be aware of patients who may be taking over the counter medications that can increase their bleed risk while taking prasugrel.

Prasugrel is on the Beers list and in general, should be avoided in most situations for patients who are 75 years of age or older.

Morphine has the potential to impact antiplatelet agents like prasugrel and make them less effective. Be sure this is clinically considered prior to using morphine with prasugrel.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Prasugrel is a P2Y12 inhibitor that is used in the setting of ACS. Be aware of patients who may be taking over the counter medications that can increase their bleed risk while taking prasugrel. Prasugrel is on the Beers list and in general, Prasugrel is a P2Y12 inhibitor that is used in the setting of ACS. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be aware of patients who may be taking over the counter medications that can increase their bleed risk while taking prasugrel.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Prasugrel is on the Beers list and in general, should be avoided in most situations for patients who are 75 years of age or older.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Morphine has the potential to impact antiplatelet agents like prasugrel and make them less effective. Be sure this is clinically considered prior to using morphine with prasugrel. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:46
Mirabegron Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/mirabegron-pharmacology/ Thu, 24 Oct 2019 14:37:11 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=588 Mirabegron is a beta-3 agonist that can help relax bladder smooth muscle and manage symptoms of overactive bladder. Mirabegron inhibits CYP2D6 which can negatively impact the effectiveness of tamoxifen. I discuss this in greater detail in the podcast. Tramadol and codeine effectiveness can be impacted by mirabegron. Be aware of this when using this medication. By inhibiting CYP2D6, mirabegron can increase the concentrations of many psychotropic medications such as fluoxetine, aripiprazole, clozapine, and paroxetine. I discuss this further in this episode of the podcast. Mirabegron is a beta-3 agonist that can help relax bladder smooth muscle and manage symptoms of overactive bladder.

Mirabegron inhibits CYP2D6 which can negatively impact the effectiveness of tamoxifen. I discuss this in greater detail in the podcast.

Tramadol and codeine effectiveness can be impacted by mirabegron. Be aware of this when using this medication.

By inhibiting CYP2D6, mirabegron can increase the concentrations of many psychotropic medications such as fluoxetine, aripiprazole, clozapine, and paroxetine. I discuss this further in this episode of the podcast.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Mirabegron is a beta-3 agonist that can help relax bladder smooth muscle and manage symptoms of overactive bladder. Mirabegron inhibits CYP2D6 which can negatively impact the effectiveness of tamoxifen. I discuss this in greater detail in the podcas... Mirabegron is a beta-3 agonist that can help relax bladder smooth muscle and manage symptoms of overactive bladder.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Mirabegron inhibits CYP2D6 which can negatively impact the effectiveness of tamoxifen. I discuss this in greater detail in the podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Tramadol and codeine effectiveness can be impacted by mirabegron. Be aware of this when using this medication.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> By inhibiting CYP2D6, mirabegron can increase the concentrations of many psychotropic medications such as fluoxetine, aripiprazole, clozapine, and paroxetine. I discuss this further in this episode of the podcast. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 15:53
Erythromycin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/erythromycin-pharmacology/ Thu, 17 Oct 2019 13:33:52 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=585 Erythromycin uniquely has some potential benefit in the setting of gastroparesis. Azithromycin you will likely not see used for this indication. Erythromycin binds the 50s subunit and ultimately prevents protein synthesis which is necessary for bacteria to grow and replicate. QTc prolongation is a risk with all macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin included). By inhibiting CYP3A4, erythromycin can be responsible for numerous drug interactions. Erythromycin uniquely has some potential benefit in the setting of gastroparesis. Azithromycin you will likely not see used for this indication.

Erythromycin binds the 50s subunit and ultimately prevents protein synthesis which is necessary for bacteria to grow and replicate.

QTc prolongation is a risk with all macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin included).

By inhibiting CYP3A4, erythromycin can be responsible for numerous drug interactions.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Erythromycin uniquely has some potential benefit in the setting of gastroparesis. Azithromycin you will likely not see used for this indication. Erythromycin binds the 50s subunit and ultimately prevents protein synthesis which is necessary for bac... Erythromycin uniquely has some potential benefit in the setting of gastroparesis. Azithromycin you will likely not see used for this indication. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Erythromycin binds the 50s subunit and ultimately prevents protein synthesis which is necessary for bacteria to grow and replicate.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> QTc prolongation is a risk with all macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin included).<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> By inhibiting CYP3A4, erythromycin can be responsible for numerous drug interactions. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:01
Naloxone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/naloxone-pharmacology/ Thu, 10 Oct 2019 16:00:43 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=580 Naloxone is a life saving drug that can help manage an opioid overdose situation. Naloxone blocks opioids receptors so opioid agonists cannot bind there. One of the biggest risks with opioid overdose includes respiratory depression. Naloxone can help reduce the risk of this if administered in a timely manner. IV naloxone will have the quickest physiological onset of action, but nasal naloxone may be the best opportunity in the community to get this drug on board quickly. Naloxone is a life saving drug that can help manage an opioid overdose situation.

Naloxone blocks opioids receptors so opioid agonists cannot bind there.

One of the biggest risks with opioid overdose includes respiratory depression. Naloxone can help reduce the risk of this if administered in a timely manner.

IV naloxone will have the quickest physiological onset of action, but nasal naloxone may be the best opportunity in the community to get this drug on board quickly.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Naloxone is a life saving drug that can help manage an opioid overdose situation. Naloxone blocks opioids receptors so opioid agonists cannot bind there. One of the biggest risks with opioid overdose includes respiratory depression. Naloxone is a life saving drug that can help manage an opioid overdose situation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Naloxone blocks opioids receptors so opioid agonists cannot bind there.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One of the biggest risks with opioid overdose includes respiratory depression. Naloxone can help reduce the risk of this if administered in a timely manner.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> IV naloxone will have the quickest physiological onset of action, but nasal naloxone may be the best opportunity in the community to get this drug on board quickly. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:46
Prochlorperazine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/prochlorperazine-pharmacology/ Thu, 03 Oct 2019 13:51:59 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=576 Prochlorperazine has several potential mechanisms of action. It can block dopamine and alpha receptors as well as have anticholinergic effects. Prochlorperazine is classified as an antipsychotic and antiemetic. It is very seldom used as an antipsychotic in clinical practice and more used for its antiemetic effects. Because of the anticholinergic activity of prochlorperazine, there is potential for dry mouth, dry eyes, urinary retention, constipation, and other anticholinergic effects. Prochlorperazine does have the potential to have some alpha blocking activity. Keep an eye out for hypotension in patients who may be at risk. Prochlorperazine has several potential mechanisms of action. It can block dopamine and alpha receptors as well as have anticholinergic effects.

Prochlorperazine is classified as an antipsychotic and antiemetic. It is very seldom used as an antipsychotic in clinical practice and more used for its antiemetic effects.

Because of the anticholinergic activity of prochlorperazine, there is potential for dry mouth, dry eyes, urinary retention, constipation, and other anticholinergic effects.

Prochlorperazine does have the potential to have some alpha blocking activity. Keep an eye out for hypotension in patients who may be at risk.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Prochlorperazine has several potential mechanisms of action. It can block dopamine and alpha receptors as well as have anticholinergic effects. Prochlorperazine is classified as an antipsychotic and antiemetic. Prochlorperazine has several potential mechanisms of action. It can block dopamine and alpha receptors as well as have anticholinergic effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Prochlorperazine is classified as an antipsychotic and antiemetic. It is very seldom used as an antipsychotic in clinical practice and more used for its antiemetic effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because of the anticholinergic activity of prochlorperazine, there is potential for dry mouth, dry eyes, urinary retention, constipation, and other anticholinergic effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Prochlorperazine does have the potential to have some alpha blocking activity. Keep an eye out for hypotension in patients who may be at risk. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:12
Buspirone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/buspirone-pharmacology/ Thu, 26 Sep 2019 15:56:48 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=573 Buspirone is an anti-anxiety medication that has the potential of having some serotonin agonist activity. Buspirone has a very high first-pass metabolism. This means that the body breaks much of the medication down prior to it getting into the systemic circulation. Buspirone is broken down by CYP3A4, so concomitant use with inhibitors or inducers can alter its concentrations Buspirone should not be used as needed as this medication takes a while to start to show benefit. Buspirone is an anti-anxiety medication that has the potential of having some serotonin agonist activity.

Buspirone has a very high first-pass metabolism. This means that the body breaks much of the medication down prior to it getting into the systemic circulation.

Buspirone is broken down by CYP3A4, so concomitant use with inhibitors or inducers can alter its concentrations

Buspirone should not be used as needed as this medication takes a while to start to show benefit.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Buspirone is an anti-anxiety medication that has the potential of having some serotonin agonist activity. Buspirone has a very high first-pass metabolism. This means that the body breaks much of the medication down prior to it getting into the syste... Buspirone is an anti-anxiety medication that has the potential of having some serotonin agonist activity.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Buspirone has a very high first-pass metabolism. This means that the body breaks much of the medication down prior to it getting into the systemic circulation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Buspirone is broken down by CYP3A4, so concomitant use with inhibitors or inducers can alter its concentrations<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Buspirone should not be used as needed as this medication takes a while to start to show benefit. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:45
Ondansetron Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/ondansetron-pharmacology/ Thu, 19 Sep 2019 11:36:28 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=569 Ondansetron (Zofran) is a medication used for nausea and vomiting. In this episode, I lay out the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and more! Ondansetron has been reported to increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. I discuss this further on the podcast. Ondansetron can exacerbate QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for patients who may have risk factors or be on other medications that can contribute to this. I discuss this further on this podcast. Ondansetron is often used for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. I discuss this and other indications on the podcast. Ondansetron (Zofran) is a medication used for nausea and vomiting. In this episode, I lay out the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and more!

Ondansetron has been reported to increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. I discuss this further on the podcast.

Ondansetron can exacerbate QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for patients who may have risk factors or be on other medications that can contribute to this. I discuss this further on this podcast.

Ondansetron is often used for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. I discuss this and other indications on the podcast.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Ondansetron (Zofran) is a medication used for nausea and vomiting. In this episode, I lay out the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and more! Ondansetron has been reported to increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Ondansetron (Zofran) is a medication used for nausea and vomiting. In this episode, I lay out the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and more!<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ondansetron has been reported to increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. I discuss this further on the podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ondansetron can exacerbate QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for patients who may have risk factors or be on other medications that can contribute to this. I discuss this further on this podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ondansetron is often used for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. I discuss this and other indications on the podcast. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:37
Acyclovir Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/acyclovir-pharmacology/ Thu, 12 Sep 2019 19:04:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=562 On this episode "Acyclovir Pharmacology" I discuss the mechanism of action, important monitoring parameters, and drug interactions with acyclovir. I discuss why acyclovir has to be dosed so many times per day. Acyclovir can inhibit CYP1A2 which can impact a few drugs. I discuss a couple of those examples on this podcast episode. GI effects are one of the more common side effects of acyclovir. Rarely, neuropathy and nephropathy can be part of the adverse effect profile of acyclovir. I discuss this further on this episode. On this episode “Acyclovir Pharmacology” I discuss the mechanism of action, important monitoring parameters, and drug interactions with acyclovir.

I discuss why acyclovir has to be dosed so many times per day.

Acyclovir can inhibit CYP1A2 which can impact a few drugs. I discuss a couple of those examples on this podcast episode.

GI effects are one of the more common side effects of acyclovir.

Rarely, neuropathy and nephropathy can be part of the adverse effect profile of acyclovir. I discuss this further on this episode.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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On this episode "Acyclovir Pharmacology" I discuss the mechanism of action, important monitoring parameters, and drug interactions with acyclovir. I discuss why acyclovir has to be dosed so many times per day. On this episode "Acyclovir Pharmacology" I discuss the mechanism of action, important monitoring parameters, and drug interactions with acyclovir.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> I discuss why acyclovir has to be dosed so many times per day.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Acyclovir can inhibit CYP1A2 which can impact a few drugs. I discuss a couple of those examples on this podcast episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GI effects are one of the more common side effects of acyclovir.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rarely, neuropathy and nephropathy can be part of the adverse effect profile of acyclovir. I discuss this further on this episode. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 17:14
Benzodiazepine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/benzodiazepine-pharmacology/ Thu, 05 Sep 2019 21:27:30 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=559 Benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effect of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Benzodiazepines can cause confusion, sedation, and respiratory depression. There are many potential indications for benzodiazepines. They can be used in anxiety, status epilepticus, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal amongst other things. There is a boxed warning for the use of opioids with benzodiazepines. The primary risk of the combination is respiratory depression. Benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effect of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Benzodiazepines can cause confusion, sedation, and respiratory depression.

There are many potential indications for benzodiazepines. They can be used in anxiety, status epilepticus, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal amongst other things.

There is a boxed warning for the use of opioids with benzodiazepines. The primary risk of the combination is respiratory depression.

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Benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effect of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Benzodiazepines can cause confusion, sedation, and respiratory depression. There are many potential indications for benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effect of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Benzodiazepines can cause confusion, sedation, and respiratory depression. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are many potential indications for benzodiazepines. They can be used in anxiety, status epilepticus, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal amongst other things.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is a boxed warning for the use of opioids with benzodiazepines. The primary risk of the combination is respiratory depression. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:59
Celecoxib Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/celecoxib-pharmacology/ Thu, 29 Aug 2019 17:46:27 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=535 Celecoxib is easy to remember as its mechanism of action is "COX"-2 Inhibition. This can result in result in reduced prostaglandin formation and help with pain and inflammation. Kidney function is important to monitor in our patient on celecoxib. It is especially important in patients taking ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and/or diuretics. While GI bleed may be less likely with celecoxib compared to traditional NSAIDs like indomethacin and ibuprofen, it still needs to be monitored for. Digoxin concentrations may be increased with the use of celecoxib. Celecoxib is generally dosed twice per day as the half-life of the drug is in the ballpark of 10-12 hours. Celecoxib is easy to remember as its mechanism of action is “COX”-2 Inhibition. This can result in result in reduced prostaglandin formation and help with pain and inflammation.

Kidney function is important to monitor in our patient on celecoxib. It is especially important in patients taking ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and/or diuretics.

While GI bleed may be less likely with celecoxib compared to traditional NSAIDs like indomethacin and ibuprofen, it still needs to be monitored for.

Digoxin concentrations may be increased with the use of celecoxib.

Celecoxib is generally dosed twice per day as the half-life of the drug is in the ballpark of 10-12 hours.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Celecoxib is easy to remember as its mechanism of action is "COX"-2 Inhibition. This can result in result in reduced prostaglandin formation and help with pain and inflammation. Kidney function is important to monitor in our patient on celecoxib. Celecoxib is easy to remember as its mechanism of action is "COX"-2 Inhibition. This can result in result in reduced prostaglandin formation and help with pain and inflammation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Kidney function is important to monitor in our patient on celecoxib. It is especially important in patients taking ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and/or diuretics.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> While GI bleed may be less likely with celecoxib compared to traditional NSAIDs like indomethacin and ibuprofen, it still needs to be monitored for.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Digoxin concentrations may be increased with the use of celecoxib.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Celecoxib is generally dosed twice per day as the half-life of the drug is in the ballpark of 10-12 hours. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:50
Dolutegravir https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/dolutegravir/ Thu, 15 Aug 2019 13:29:37 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=525 Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor that is used in the management of HIV infection/ Carbamazepine along with other enzyme inducers can substantially lower the concentrations of dolutegravir. Dolutegravir can potentially increase blood sugars, this should be closely monitored in our patients with diabetes. CNS adverse effects like insomnia and dizziness can happen with dolutegravir. Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor that is used in the management of HIV infection/

Carbamazepine along with other enzyme inducers can substantially lower the concentrations of dolutegravir.

Dolutegravir can potentially increase blood sugars, this should be closely monitored in our patients with diabetes.

CNS adverse effects like insomnia and dizziness can happen with dolutegravir.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor that is used in the management of HIV infection/ Carbamazepine along with other enzyme inducers can substantially lower the concentrations of dolutegravir. Dolutegravir can potentially increase blood sugars,... Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor that is used in the management of HIV infection/<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Carbamazepine along with other enzyme inducers can substantially lower the concentrations of dolutegravir.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Dolutegravir can potentially increase blood sugars, this should be closely monitored in our patients with diabetes.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> CNS adverse effects like insomnia and dizziness can happen with dolutegravir. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:53
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Injection Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/medroxyprogesterone-acetate-injection-pharmacology/ Thu, 08 Aug 2019 16:02:54 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=521 On this podcast episode, I cover medroxyprogesterone acetate injection pharmacology (DMPA or Depo-Provera) Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection is given every three months for the prevention of pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate has a boxed warning for its risk of causing low bone mineral density. Classic enzyme inducers can cause lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone which can potentially lead to contraceptive failure. Examples of enzyme inducers that can lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone include carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, and some agents used in the management of HIV. On this podcast episode, I cover medroxyprogesterone acetate injection pharmacology (DMPA or Depo-Provera)

Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection is given every three months for the prevention of pregnancy.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate has a boxed warning for its risk of causing low bone mineral density.

Classic enzyme inducers can cause lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone which can potentially lead to contraceptive failure.

Examples of enzyme inducers that can lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone include carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, and some agents used in the management of HIV.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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On this podcast episode, I cover medroxyprogesterone acetate injection pharmacology (DMPA or Depo-Provera) Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection is given every three months for the prevention of pregnancy. On this podcast episode, I cover medroxyprogesterone acetate injection pharmacology (DMPA or Depo-Provera)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection is given every three months for the prevention of pregnancy.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Medroxyprogesterone acetate has a boxed warning for its risk of causing low bone mineral density.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Classic enzyme inducers can cause lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone which can potentially lead to contraceptive failure.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Examples of enzyme inducers that can lower concentrations of medroxyprogesterone include carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, and some agents used in the management of HIV. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:54
Budesonide Formoterol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/budesonide-formoterol-pharmacology/ Thu, 01 Aug 2019 15:33:56 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=518 Budesonide/formoterol inhalation is sold under the brand name Symbicort. Budesonide/formoterol is a combination agent that is used in the management of COPD and asthma. Budesonide/formoterol is a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist. GINA guidelines now allow for the use of budesonide/formoterol in the management of acute asthma exacerbation. Budesonide/formoterol inhalation is sold under the brand name Symbicort.

Budesonide/formoterol is a combination agent that is used in the management of COPD and asthma.

Budesonide/formoterol is a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist.

GINA guidelines now allow for the use of budesonide/formoterol in the management of acute asthma exacerbation.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!



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Budesonide/formoterol inhalation is sold under the brand name Symbicort. Budesonide/formoterol is a combination agent that is used in the management of COPD and asthma. Budesonide/formoterol is a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and long-... Budesonide/formoterol inhalation is sold under the brand name Symbicort.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Budesonide/formoterol is a combination agent that is used in the management of COPD and asthma.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Budesonide/formoterol is a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GINA guidelines now allow for the use of budesonide/formoterol in the management of acute asthma exacerbation. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:03
Benztropine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/benztropine-pharmacology/ Thu, 25 Jul 2019 12:04:37 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=506 Benztropine is a highly anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for movement disorders. Antipsychotics can cause extrapyramidal adverse effects that can help be managed with benztropine. Because benztropine is highly anticholinergic, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation and contribute to falls and confusion, particularly in our elderly population. While benztropine is classified as an anti-Parkinson's agent, it is rarely used for that indication as it has a high incidence of anticholinergic adverse effects (particularly at the doses that are required for benefit). Benztropine is a highly anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for movement disorders.

Antipsychotics can cause extrapyramidal adverse effects that can help be managed with benztropine.

Because benztropine is highly anticholinergic, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation and contribute to falls and confusion, particularly in our elderly population.

While benztropine is classified as an anti-Parkinson’s agent, it is rarely used for that indication as it has a high incidence of anticholinergic adverse effects (particularly at the doses that are required for benefit).

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Benztropine is a highly anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for movement disorders. Antipsychotics can cause extrapyramidal adverse effects that can help be managed with benztropine. Because benztropine is highly anticholinergic, Benztropine is a highly anticholinergic medication that is primarily used for movement disorders. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Antipsychotics can cause extrapyramidal adverse effects that can help be managed with benztropine. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because benztropine is highly anticholinergic, it can cause dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation and contribute to falls and confusion, particularly in our elderly population.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> While benztropine is classified as an anti-Parkinson's agent, it is rarely used for that indication as it has a high incidence of anticholinergic adverse effects (particularly at the doses that are required for benefit). Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:51
Budesonide Pharmacology (Oral and Rectal Formulations) https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/budesonide-pharmacology-oral-and-rectal-formulations/ Thu, 18 Jul 2019 16:48:27 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=502 Budesonide is a corticosteroid that can be given orally or rectally for management of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Because budesonide has a high first pass metabolism, the relative impact of systemic effects may be less than other steroids like prednisone. Remember that CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the concentrations of budesonide. I discuss this further on the podcast. Different dosage forms of budesonide (oral versus rectal) can be used for different reasons. The site of the inflammation in Ulcerative colitis can determine which dosage form is most appropriate. Budesonide is a corticosteroid that can be given orally or rectally for management of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Because budesonide has a high first pass metabolism, the relative impact of systemic effects may be less than other steroids like prednisone.

Remember that CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the concentrations of budesonide. I discuss this further on the podcast.

Different dosage forms of budesonide (oral versus rectal) can be used for different reasons. The site of the inflammation in Ulcerative colitis can determine which dosage form is most appropriate.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Budesonide is a corticosteroid that can be given orally or rectally for management of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Because budesonide has a high first pass metabolism, the relative impact of systemic effects may be less than other steroids... Budesonide is a corticosteroid that can be given orally or rectally for management of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because budesonide has a high first pass metabolism, the relative impact of systemic effects may be less than other steroids like prednisone.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Remember that CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the concentrations of budesonide. I discuss this further on the podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Different dosage forms of budesonide (oral versus rectal) can be used for different reasons. The site of the inflammation in Ulcerative colitis can determine which dosage form is most appropriate. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:12
Cimetidine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/cimetidine-pharmacology/ Thu, 11 Jul 2019 18:15:08 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=496 Cimetidine blocks histamine 2 receptors which can suppress acid production and reduce symptoms of heartburn. One of the major downsides to cimetidine is that it has a ton of drug interactions. I discuss many of the common ones in this episode. Cimetidine is one of a few drugs that has the potential to cause gynecomastia. I discuss the mechanism of this adverse effect in this episode. Phenytoin concentrations can rise due to the use of cimetidine. I discuss this in the drug interactions section of this episode. Cimetidine blocks histamine 2 receptors which can suppress acid production and reduce symptoms of heartburn.

One of the major downsides to cimetidine is that it has a ton of drug interactions. I discuss many of the common ones in this episode.

Cimetidine is one of a few drugs that has the potential to cause gynecomastia. I discuss the mechanism of this adverse effect in this episode.

Phenytoin concentrations can rise due to the use of cimetidine. I discuss this in the drug interactions section of this episode.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Cimetidine blocks histamine 2 receptors which can suppress acid production and reduce symptoms of heartburn. One of the major downsides to cimetidine is that it has a ton of drug interactions. I discuss many of the common ones in this episode. Cimetidine blocks histamine 2 receptors which can suppress acid production and reduce symptoms of heartburn.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One of the major downsides to cimetidine is that it has a ton of drug interactions. I discuss many of the common ones in this episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cimetidine is one of a few drugs that has the potential to cause gynecomastia. I discuss the mechanism of this adverse effect in this episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Phenytoin concentrations can rise due to the use of cimetidine. I discuss this in the drug interactions section of this episode. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:00
Clopidogrel Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/clopidogrel-pharmacology/ Thu, 04 Jul 2019 17:34:29 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=493 Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent that is often used in combination with aspirin to help reduce the risk of an MI. The risk of bleed is a high priority with the use of clopidogrel. Patients must be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding and bruising. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite by CYP2C19. Fluconazole can inhibit CYP2C19 which may reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent that is often used in combination with aspirin to help reduce the risk of an MI.

The risk of bleed is a high priority with the use of clopidogrel. Patients must be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding and bruising.

Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite by CYP2C19.

Fluconazole can inhibit CYP2C19 which may reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent that is often used in combination with aspirin to help reduce the risk of an MI. The risk of bleed is a high priority with the use of clopidogrel. Patients must be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding and... Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent that is often used in combination with aspirin to help reduce the risk of an MI.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The risk of bleed is a high priority with the use of clopidogrel. Patients must be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding and bruising.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite by CYP2C19. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Fluconazole can inhibit CYP2C19 which may reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:36
Sulfasalazine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/sulfasalazine-pharmacology/ Thu, 27 Jun 2019 13:34:27 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=489 Sulfasalazine is a medication that can be used for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. Because sulfasalazine can cause GI upset, this is a major reason why we try to break up the dose and give it multiple (at least two) times per day. LFT and CBC monitoring are recommended with sulfasalazine due to its low potential to cause liver dysfunction, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis. Sulfasalazine can impair folic acid absorption and lead to potential deficiency. A patient deficient in folic acid is at higher risk for developing anemia. Sulfasalazine is a medication that can be used for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and Ulcerative Colitis.

Because sulfasalazine can cause GI upset, this is a major reason why we try to break up the dose and give it multiple (at least two) times per day.

LFT and CBC monitoring are recommended with sulfasalazine due to its low potential to cause liver dysfunction, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis.

Sulfasalazine can impair folic acid absorption and lead to potential deficiency. A patient deficient in folic acid is at higher risk for developing anemia.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Sulfasalazine is a medication that can be used for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. Because sulfasalazine can cause GI upset, this is a major reason why we try to break up the dose and give it multiple (at... Sulfasalazine is a medication that can be used for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and Ulcerative Colitis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because sulfasalazine can cause GI upset, this is a major reason why we try to break up the dose and give it multiple (at least two) times per day.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> LFT and CBC monitoring are recommended with sulfasalazine due to its low potential to cause liver dysfunction, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Sulfasalazine can impair folic acid absorption and lead to potential deficiency. A patient deficient in folic acid is at higher risk for developing anemia. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 9:09
Cholestyramine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/cholestyramine-pharmacology/ Thu, 20 Jun 2019 09:20:03 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=484 On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of cholestyramine. Cholestyramine was originally developed as an agent to manage cholesterol, but has fallen out of favor for some of the more effective agents like statins. Cholestyramine is notorious for binding drug interactions. It can reduce concentrations of drugs like amiodarone, digoxin, oral contraceptives, immunosuppressive and many more! In patients with chronic diarrhea, cholestyramine is occasionally used off label to help manage symptoms because it tends to have constipating effects. On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of cholestyramine.

Cholestyramine was originally developed as an agent to manage cholesterol, but has fallen out of favor for some of the more effective agents like statins.

Cholestyramine is notorious for binding drug interactions. It can reduce concentrations of drugs like amiodarone, digoxin, oral contraceptives, immunosuppressive and many more!

In patients with chronic diarrhea, cholestyramine is occasionally used off label to help manage symptoms because it tends to have constipating effects.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of cholestyramine. Cholestyramine was originally developed as an agent to manage cholesterol, but has fallen out of favor for some of the more effective agents like statins. On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of cholestyramine.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cholestyramine was originally developed as an agent to manage cholesterol, but has fallen out of favor for some of the more effective agents like statins.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cholestyramine is notorious for binding drug interactions. It can reduce concentrations of drugs like amiodarone, digoxin, oral contraceptives, immunosuppressive and many more!<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In patients with chronic diarrhea, cholestyramine is occasionally used off label to help manage symptoms because it tends to have constipating effects. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:12
Rifampin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/rifampin-pharmacology/ Thu, 13 Jun 2019 15:09:57 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=477 Rifampin is classified as an antibiotic and an antituberculosis agent. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase. While not extremely common, rifampin is well known to cause hepatic dysfunction. You should remind patients who are taking rifampin that it can alter the color of tears, sweat, saliva and urine. It can change these fluids to a reddish/brown color. Rifampin is very well known for causing drug interactions. It is an enzyme inducer that can reduce the concentrations of numerous medications such as warfarin, apixaban, cyclosporin, levothyroxine, and oral contraceptives to name a few. Rifampin can be used to help prevent meningococcal infection. Learn more on rifampin by listening to this podcast! Rifampin is classified as an antibiotic and an antituberculosis agent. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase.

While not extremely common, rifampin is well known to cause hepatic dysfunction.

You should remind patients who are taking rifampin that it can alter the color of tears, sweat, saliva and urine. It can change these fluids to a reddish/brown color.

Rifampin is very well known for causing drug interactions. It is an enzyme inducer that can reduce the concentrations of numerous medications such as warfarin, apixaban, cyclosporin, levothyroxine, and oral contraceptives to name a few.

Rifampin can be used to help prevent meningococcal infection. Learn more on rifampin by listening to this podcast!

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Rifampin is classified as an antibiotic and an antituberculosis agent. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase. While not extremely common, rifampin is well known to cause hepatic dysfunction. Rifampin is classified as an antibiotic and an antituberculosis agent. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> While not extremely common, rifampin is well known to cause hepatic dysfunction.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> You should remind patients who are taking rifampin that it can alter the color of tears, sweat, saliva and urine. It can change these fluids to a reddish/brown color.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rifampin is very well known for causing drug interactions. It is an enzyme inducer that can reduce the concentrations of numerous medications such as warfarin, apixaban, cyclosporin, levothyroxine, and oral contraceptives to name a few.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rifampin can be used to help prevent meningococcal infection. Learn more on rifampin by listening to this podcast! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:48
Heparin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/heparin-pharmacology/ Thu, 06 Jun 2019 13:34:22 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=472 Heparin is an interesting drug with a lot of unique clinical quirks. This drug ultimately inhibits the formation of fibrin. Fibrin is an essential component of a blood clot. Because heparin has blood thinning effects, it is critical to assess a patient's bleed risk. Look out for other agents that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include; NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, and other anticoagulants. One classic test question about heparin that often comes up is the reversal agent. Protamine can be used to help reverse the effects of heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a critical adverse effect to understand. I discuss both subtypes on the podcast and let you know what to look out for. Rarer side effects of heparin include hyperkalemia and osteoporosis (only with long term use). Heparin is an interesting drug with a lot of unique clinical quirks. This drug ultimately inhibits the formation of fibrin. Fibrin is an essential component of a blood clot.

Because heparin has blood thinning effects, it is critical to assess a patient’s bleed risk. Look out for other agents that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include; NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, and other anticoagulants.

One classic test question about heparin that often comes up is the reversal agent. Protamine can be used to help reverse the effects of heparin.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a critical adverse effect to understand. I discuss both subtypes on the podcast and let you know what to look out for.

Rarer side effects of heparin include hyperkalemia and osteoporosis (only with long term use).

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Heparin is an interesting drug with a lot of unique clinical quirks. This drug ultimately inhibits the formation of fibrin. Fibrin is an essential component of a blood clot. Because heparin has blood thinning effects, Heparin is an interesting drug with a lot of unique clinical quirks. This drug ultimately inhibits the formation of fibrin. Fibrin is an essential component of a blood clot.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because heparin has blood thinning effects, it is critical to assess a patient's bleed risk. Look out for other agents that may increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include; NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, and other anticoagulants.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One classic test question about heparin that often comes up is the reversal agent. Protamine can be used to help reverse the effects of heparin.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a critical adverse effect to understand. I discuss both subtypes on the podcast and let you know what to look out for.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rarer side effects of heparin include hyperkalemia and osteoporosis (only with long term use). Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 16:40
Montelukast Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/montelukast-pharmacology/ Thu, 30 May 2019 14:19:48 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=467 On this episode, I discuss montelukast pharmacology Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Leukotrienes play an important role in causing inflammation and smooth muscle contraction in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Because montelukast blocks the effects of leukotrienes, it can be advantageous to use this medication for allergies and asthma. It is important to remind patients that montelukast is NOT a substitute for an acute relief medication like albuterol in the management of asthma symptoms. Montelukast has been reported to cause mood and behavioral changes and it is important to monitor our patients for these rare concerns. On this episode, I discuss montelukast pharmacology

Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Leukotrienes play an important role in causing inflammation and smooth muscle contraction in asthma and allergic rhinitis.

Because montelukast blocks the effects of leukotrienes, it can be advantageous to use this medication for allergies and asthma.

It is important to remind patients that montelukast is NOT a substitute for an acute relief medication like albuterol in the management of asthma symptoms.

Montelukast has been reported to cause mood and behavioral changes and it is important to monitor our patients for these rare concerns.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss montelukast pharmacology Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Leukotrienes play an important role in causing inflammation and smooth muscle contraction in asthma and allergic rhinitis. On this episode, I discuss montelukast pharmacology<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. Leukotrienes play an important role in causing inflammation and smooth muscle contraction in asthma and allergic rhinitis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because montelukast blocks the effects of leukotrienes, it can be advantageous to use this medication for allergies and asthma.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is important to remind patients that montelukast is NOT a substitute for an acute relief medication like albuterol in the management of asthma symptoms.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Montelukast has been reported to cause mood and behavioral changes and it is important to monitor our patients for these rare concerns. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:16
Clozapine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/clozapine-pharmacology/ Thu, 23 May 2019 14:11:58 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=462 On this episode, I discuss clozapine pharmacology. This drug has multiple mechanisms of action: Dopamine blockade, anticholinergic activity, and alpha blocking activity all contribute to the complexity of this drug. Smoking cessation can significantly increase the concentrations of clozapine. This is because smoking can induce CYP1A2. Listen to the podcast for more details on how this can impact our patients clinically. Clozapine has 5 boxed warnings. I discuss them all in this podcast. The most well-known boxed warning is for agranulocytosis. Because clozapine has alpha blocking activity, it can cause orthostasis. We need to monitor for this. Clozapine can cause QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for other medications that the patient may be taking that can also cause this. Examples include: amiodarone, ondansetron, quinolones, and macrolides On this episode, I discuss clozapine pharmacology. This drug has multiple mechanisms of action: Dopamine blockade, anticholinergic activity, and alpha blocking activity all contribute to the complexity of this drug.

Smoking cessation can significantly increase the concentrations of clozapine. This is because smoking can induce CYP1A2. Listen to the podcast for more details on how this can impact our patients clinically.

Clozapine has 5 boxed warnings. I discuss them all in this podcast. The most well-known boxed warning is for agranulocytosis.

Because clozapine has alpha blocking activity, it can cause orthostasis. We need to monitor for this.

Clozapine can cause QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for other medications that the patient may be taking that can also cause this. Examples include: amiodarone, ondansetron, quinolones, and macrolides

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss clozapine pharmacology. This drug has multiple mechanisms of action: Dopamine blockade, anticholinergic activity, and alpha blocking activity all contribute to the complexity of this drug. On this episode, I discuss clozapine pharmacology. This drug has multiple mechanisms of action: Dopamine blockade, anticholinergic activity, and alpha blocking activity all contribute to the complexity of this drug.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Smoking cessation can significantly increase the concentrations of clozapine. This is because smoking can induce CYP1A2. Listen to the podcast for more details on how this can impact our patients clinically.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clozapine has 5 boxed warnings. I discuss them all in this podcast. The most well-known boxed warning is for agranulocytosis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because clozapine has alpha blocking activity, it can cause orthostasis. We need to monitor for this.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clozapine can cause QTc prolongation. Keep an eye out for other medications that the patient may be taking that can also cause this. Examples include: amiodarone, ondansetron, quinolones, and macrolides Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:24
Carbamazepine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/carbamazepine-pharmacology/ Thu, 16 May 2019 19:10:18 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=459 On this episode, I discuss carbamazepine pharmacology. This drug is most commonly used for seizures, bipolar disorder, or trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine is an autoinducer and can reduce the concentrations of numerous drugs. Some examples include apixaban, warfarin, rivaroxaban, diltiazem, verapamil, and many more! Carbamazepine has the potential to cause Steven Johnson's Syndrome. This has a much greater chance of happening in patients with certain genetics. Carbamazepine can contribute to SIADH and cause significant hyponatremia. Carbamazepine has boxed warning for numerous potential events like aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and the above-mentioned SJS. On this episode, I discuss carbamazepine pharmacology. This drug is most commonly used for seizures, bipolar disorder, or trigeminal neuralgia.

Carbamazepine is an autoinducer and can reduce the concentrations of numerous drugs. Some examples include apixaban, warfarin, rivaroxaban, diltiazem, verapamil, and many more!

Carbamazepine has the potential to cause Steven Johnson’s Syndrome. This has a much greater chance of happening in patients with certain genetics.

Carbamazepine can contribute to SIADH and cause significant hyponatremia.

Carbamazepine has boxed warning for numerous potential events like aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and the above-mentioned SJS.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss carbamazepine pharmacology. This drug is most commonly used for seizures, bipolar disorder, or trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine is an autoinducer and can reduce the concentrations of numerous drugs. On this episode, I discuss carbamazepine pharmacology. This drug is most commonly used for seizures, bipolar disorder, or trigeminal neuralgia.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Carbamazepine is an autoinducer and can reduce the concentrations of numerous drugs. Some examples include apixaban, warfarin, rivaroxaban, diltiazem, verapamil, and many more!<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Carbamazepine has the potential to cause Steven Johnson's Syndrome. This has a much greater chance of happening in patients with certain genetics.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Carbamazepine can contribute to SIADH and cause significant hyponatremia.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Carbamazepine has boxed warning for numerous potential events like aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and the above-mentioned SJS. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:53
Stimulant Laxatives Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/stimulant-laxatives-pharmacology/ Thu, 09 May 2019 16:37:23 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=455 On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of commonly used stimulant laxatives like sennosides and bisacodyl. Stimulant laxatives "stimulate" the GI tract smooth muscle which helps propel fecal material out of the body and thus helping to relieve constipation. Patients who are having diarrhea and are unsure of what medications they are taking should have their regimen assessed for these medications. Chronic opioid therapy is a situation where chronic stimulant laxative therapy may be used. Stimulant laxatives have very few drug interactions. However, bisacodyl effectiveness can be reduced by the use of antacids like calcium carbonate. On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of commonly used stimulant laxatives like sennosides and bisacodyl.

Stimulant laxatives “stimulate” the GI tract smooth muscle which helps propel fecal material out of the body and thus helping to relieve constipation.

Patients who are having diarrhea and are unsure of what medications they are taking should have their regimen assessed for these medications.

Chronic opioid therapy is a situation where chronic stimulant laxative therapy may be used.

Stimulant laxatives have very few drug interactions. However, bisacodyl effectiveness can be reduced by the use of antacids like calcium carbonate.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of commonly used stimulant laxatives like sennosides and bisacodyl. Stimulant laxatives "stimulate" the GI tract smooth muscle which helps propel fecal material out of the body and thus helping to relieve ... On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of commonly used stimulant laxatives like sennosides and bisacodyl.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Stimulant laxatives "stimulate" the GI tract smooth muscle which helps propel fecal material out of the body and thus helping to relieve constipation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Patients who are having diarrhea and are unsure of what medications they are taking should have their regimen assessed for these medications.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Chronic opioid therapy is a situation where chronic stimulant laxative therapy may be used.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Stimulant laxatives have very few drug interactions. However, bisacodyl effectiveness can be reduced by the use of antacids like calcium carbonate. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:25
Ezetimibe Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/ezetimibe-pharmacology/ Thu, 02 May 2019 14:54:09 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=451 On this episode, I discuss ezetimibe pharmacology. Ezetimibe works by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like1 (NPC1L1) transporter. This transporter aids in cholesterol absorption so by blocking it, we can reduce cholesterol levels (and LDL) in the bloodstream. Ezetimibe is usually very well tolerated. Diarrhea, myopathy, and elevations in LFT's are adverse effects that have been reported but do not occur at high rates. Ezetimibe is dosed at 10 mg once daily. This is a nice advantage because this is a starting dose and the usual treatment dose. With the most recent cholesterol guideline updates, I do expect ezetimibe to be utilized a little more than it used to be. They place more emphasis on a target LDL and getting patients to goal. Statins are going to be used first line for cholesterol and ezetimibe will be an add on therapy to consider. They don't, unfortunately, lower cholesterol as much as high-intensity statins do. On this episode, I discuss ezetimibe pharmacology. Ezetimibe works by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like1 (NPC1L1) transporter. This transporter aids in cholesterol absorption so by blocking it, we can reduce cholesterol levels (and LDL) in the bloodstream.

Ezetimibe is usually very well tolerated. Diarrhea, myopathy, and elevations in LFT’s are adverse effects that have been reported but do not occur at high rates.

Ezetimibe is dosed at 10 mg once daily. This is a nice advantage because this is a starting dose and the usual treatment dose.

With the most recent cholesterol guideline updates, I do expect ezetimibe to be utilized a little more than it used to be. They place more emphasis on a target LDL and getting patients to goal.

Statins are going to be used first line for cholesterol and ezetimibe will be an add on therapy to consider. They don’t, unfortunately, lower cholesterol as much as high-intensity statins do.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss ezetimibe pharmacology. Ezetimibe works by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like1 (NPC1L1) transporter. This transporter aids in cholesterol absorption so by blocking it, we can reduce cholesterol levels (and LDL) in the bloodstrea... On this episode, I discuss ezetimibe pharmacology. Ezetimibe works by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like1 (NPC1L1) transporter. This transporter aids in cholesterol absorption so by blocking it, we can reduce cholesterol levels (and LDL) in the bloodstream.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ezetimibe is usually very well tolerated. Diarrhea, myopathy, and elevations in LFT's are adverse effects that have been reported but do not occur at high rates.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ezetimibe is dosed at 10 mg once daily. This is a nice advantage because this is a starting dose and the usual treatment dose.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> With the most recent cholesterol guideline updates, I do expect ezetimibe to be utilized a little more than it used to be. They place more emphasis on a target LDL and getting patients to goal.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Statins are going to be used first line for cholesterol and ezetimibe will be an add on therapy to consider. They don't, unfortunately, lower cholesterol as much as high-intensity statins do. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:45
Azithromycin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/azithromycin-pharmacology/ Thu, 25 Apr 2019 13:52:29 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=447 On this episode, I cover azithromycin pharmacology. This drug primarily acts by inhibiting protein synthesis. It binds to the 50s ribosomal subunit. GI adverse effects like nausea and diarrhea are going to be the most common with azithromycin. Azithromycin has been associated with prolonging the QT interval. Drugs like amiodarone, ondansetron, citalopram, antipsychotics, and quinolone antibiotics can also prolong the QT interval. One major advantage that azithromycin has over other antibiotics is that it has a long half life which allows for once daily dosing. Azithromycin has numerous uses like pneumonia, MAC, alternative for ear infections in patients with a beta-lactam allergy, certain STD's, and also is rarely used in long term COPD exacerbation prevention. On this episode, I cover azithromycin pharmacology. This drug primarily acts by inhibiting protein synthesis. It binds to the 50s ribosomal subunit.

GI adverse effects like nausea and diarrhea are going to be the most common with azithromycin.

Azithromycin has been associated with prolonging the QT interval. Drugs like amiodarone, ondansetron, citalopram, antipsychotics, and quinolone antibiotics can also prolong the QT interval.

One major advantage that azithromycin has over other antibiotics is that it has a long half life which allows for once daily dosing.

Azithromycin has numerous uses like pneumonia, MAC, alternative for ear infections in patients with a beta-lactam allergy, certain STD’s, and also is rarely used in long term COPD exacerbation prevention.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I cover azithromycin pharmacology. This drug primarily acts by inhibiting protein synthesis. It binds to the 50s ribosomal subunit. GI adverse effects like nausea and diarrhea are going to be the most common with azithromycin. On this episode, I cover azithromycin pharmacology. This drug primarily acts by inhibiting protein synthesis. It binds to the 50s ribosomal subunit.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GI adverse effects like nausea and diarrhea are going to be the most common with azithromycin.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Azithromycin has been associated with prolonging the QT interval. Drugs like amiodarone, ondansetron, citalopram, antipsychotics, and quinolone antibiotics can also prolong the QT interval.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One major advantage that azithromycin has over other antibiotics is that it has a long half life which allows for once daily dosing. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Azithromycin has numerous uses like pneumonia, MAC, alternative for ear infections in patients with a beta-lactam allergy, certain STD's, and also is rarely used in long term COPD exacerbation prevention. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:44
Rivaroxaban Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/rivaroxaban-pharmacology/ Thu, 18 Apr 2019 13:55:26 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=442 Rivaroxaban is a factor 10a inhibitor that inhibits clot formation and thins the blood. Rivaroxaban needs to be monitored for bleed risk. Checking periodic CBC can help us assess if hemoglobin and hematocrit are remaining stable. Enzyme inducers like rifampin, St. John's Wort, and carbamazepine can reduce concentrations and increase the risk of treatment failure. NSAIDs and antiplatelet medications can significantly increase the risk of bleed with rivaroxaban. Rivaroxaban should not be used with dual P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Examples include ketoconazole, itraconazole, and ritonavir. Rivaroxaban is a factor 10a inhibitor that inhibits clot formation and thins the blood.

Rivaroxaban needs to be monitored for bleed risk. Checking periodic CBC can help us assess if hemoglobin and hematocrit are remaining stable.

Enzyme inducers like rifampin, St. John’s Wort, and carbamazepine can reduce concentrations and increase the risk of treatment failure.

NSAIDs and antiplatelet medications can significantly increase the risk of bleed with rivaroxaban.

Rivaroxaban should not be used with dual P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Examples include ketoconazole, itraconazole, and ritonavir.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Rivaroxaban is a factor 10a inhibitor that inhibits clot formation and thins the blood. Rivaroxaban needs to be monitored for bleed risk. Checking periodic CBC can help us assess if hemoglobin and hematocrit are remaining stable. Rivaroxaban is a factor 10a inhibitor that inhibits clot formation and thins the blood.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rivaroxaban needs to be monitored for bleed risk. Checking periodic CBC can help us assess if hemoglobin and hematocrit are remaining stable.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Enzyme inducers like rifampin, St. John's Wort, and carbamazepine can reduce concentrations and increase the risk of treatment failure.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> NSAIDs and antiplatelet medications can significantly increase the risk of bleed with rivaroxaban.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Rivaroxaban should not be used with dual P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibitors. Examples include ketoconazole, itraconazole, and ritonavir. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 16:57
Valproate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/valproate-pharmacology/ Thu, 11 Apr 2019 16:06:01 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=438 Valproate (valproic acid, Depakote) has numerous uses which includes migraines, seizures, and bipolar disorder. In a patient who is taking valproate, it is important to monitor for signs and symptoms of confusion as this drug can cause elevated ammonia levels. When switching between dosage forms of valproate, you must recognize that the bioavailability is not the same between each different dosage form. This could lead to toxicity or treatment failure. Valproic acid has a boxed warning for hepatotoxicity and liver function needs to be monitored. Valproic acid can increase lamotrigine levels which ultimately could lead to an increased risk of lamotrigine induced SJS. Valproate (valproic acid, Depakote) has numerous uses which includes migraines, seizures, and bipolar disorder.

In a patient who is taking valproate, it is important to monitor for signs and symptoms of confusion as this drug can cause elevated ammonia levels.

When switching between dosage forms of valproate, you must recognize that the bioavailability is not the same between each different dosage form. This could lead to toxicity or treatment failure.

Valproic acid has a boxed warning for hepatotoxicity and liver function needs to be monitored.

Valproic acid can increase lamotrigine levels which ultimately could lead to an increased risk of lamotrigine induced SJS.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Valproate (valproic acid, Depakote) has numerous uses which includes migraines, seizures, and bipolar disorder. In a patient who is taking valproate, it is important to monitor for signs and symptoms of confusion as this drug can cause elevated ammo... Valproate (valproic acid, Depakote) has numerous uses which includes migraines, seizures, and bipolar disorder.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> In a patient who is taking valproate, it is important to monitor for signs and symptoms of confusion as this drug can cause elevated ammonia levels.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> When switching between dosage forms of valproate, you must recognize that the bioavailability is not the same between each different dosage form. This could lead to toxicity or treatment failure.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Valproic acid has a boxed warning for hepatotoxicity and liver function needs to be monitored.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Valproic acid can increase lamotrigine levels which ultimately could lead to an increased risk of lamotrigine induced SJS. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:44
Donepezil Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/donepezil-pharmacology/ Thu, 04 Apr 2019 17:33:29 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=432 On this episode I discuss the pharmacology of donepezil. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In dementia, that is a deficiency in acetylcholine and donepezil helps preserve this neurotransmitter. Donepezil can cause weight loss, GI upset, and diarrhea. This is an important monitoring parameter in our dementia patients. There is the possibility for donepezil to cause bradycardia and insomnia. Keep an eye out for these adverse effects as they can and do happen in real practice. Anticholinergics are notorious for blunting the effects of donepezil. We must look out for drug interactions from older anticholinergics like diphenhydramine, amitriptyline, and hydroxyzine. On this episode I discuss the pharmacology of donepezil.

Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In dementia, that is a deficiency in acetylcholine and donepezil helps preserve this neurotransmitter.

Donepezil can cause weight loss, GI upset, and diarrhea. This is an important monitoring parameter in our dementia patients.

There is the possibility for donepezil to cause bradycardia and insomnia. Keep an eye out for these adverse effects as they can and do happen in real practice.

Anticholinergics are notorious for blunting the effects of donepezil. We must look out for drug interactions from older anticholinergics like diphenhydramine, amitriptyline, and hydroxyzine.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode I discuss the pharmacology of donepezil. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In dementia, that is a deficiency in acetylcholine and donepezil helps preserve this neurotransmitter. Donepezil can cause weight loss, On this episode I discuss the pharmacology of donepezil.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In dementia, that is a deficiency in acetylcholine and donepezil helps preserve this neurotransmitter.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Donepezil can cause weight loss, GI upset, and diarrhea. This is an important monitoring parameter in our dementia patients.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is the possibility for donepezil to cause bradycardia and insomnia. Keep an eye out for these adverse effects as they can and do happen in real practice.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Anticholinergics are notorious for blunting the effects of donepezil. We must look out for drug interactions from older anticholinergics like diphenhydramine, amitriptyline, and hydroxyzine. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:23
Linezolid Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/linezolid-pharmacology/ Thu, 28 Mar 2019 18:18:39 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=429 Linezolid is an antibiotic used for bacterial infection. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Linezolid is primarily bacteriostatic against most bacteria which means that it inhibits the growth and doesn't necessarily kill the bacteria itself. Caution must be used with linezolid and serotonergic drugs as there is a risk for serotonin syndrome. Clinical risk/benefit analysis needs to be done. Linezolid overall has good coverage for VRE and MRSA. It is an option for MRSA pneumonia where daptomycin is not. Linezolid has both an oral and an IV option which allows for good continuity of inpatient and outpatient use. Linezolid is an antibiotic used for bacterial infection. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.

Linezolid is primarily bacteriostatic against most bacteria which means that it inhibits the growth and doesn’t necessarily kill the bacteria itself.

Caution must be used with linezolid and serotonergic drugs as there is a risk for serotonin syndrome. Clinical risk/benefit analysis needs to be done.

Linezolid overall has good coverage for VRE and MRSA. It is an option for MRSA pneumonia where daptomycin is not.

Linezolid has both an oral and an IV option which allows for good continuity of inpatient and outpatient use.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Linezolid is an antibiotic used for bacterial infection. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Linezolid is primarily bacteriostatic against most bacteria which means that it inhibits the growth and doesn't necessarily kill t... Linezolid is an antibiotic used for bacterial infection. It primarily works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Linezolid is primarily bacteriostatic against most bacteria which means that it inhibits the growth and doesn't necessarily kill the bacteria itself.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Caution must be used with linezolid and serotonergic drugs as there is a risk for serotonin syndrome. Clinical risk/benefit analysis needs to be done.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Linezolid overall has good coverage for VRE and MRSA. It is an option for MRSA pneumonia where daptomycin is not.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Linezolid has both an oral and an IV option which allows for good continuity of inpatient and outpatient use. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:20
Pioglitazone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/pioglitazone-pharmacology/ Thu, 21 Mar 2019 18:24:57 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=423 On this episode, I cover pioglitazone pharmacology. The primary mechanism of action with pioglitazone is that it is an agonist at Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma receptor. This improves insulin sensitivty in the periphery. Two common side effects exist with pioglitazone. This drug can cause weight gain and also contribute to edema. Pioglitazone has a boxed warning and is contraindicated in patients who have symptomatic heart failure. There are a few potential interactions with pioglitazone. Trimethoprim and gemfibrozil can inhibit the breakdown of pioglitazone. A couple of advantages of pioglitazone include that it is generic (inexpensive) and that it is dosed once daily. On this episode, I cover pioglitazone pharmacology. The primary mechanism of action with pioglitazone is that it is an agonist at Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma receptor. This improves insulin sensitivty in the periphery.

Two common side effects exist with pioglitazone. This drug can cause weight gain and also contribute to edema.

Pioglitazone has a boxed warning and is contraindicated in patients who have symptomatic heart failure.

There are a few potential interactions with pioglitazone. Trimethoprim and gemfibrozil can inhibit the breakdown of pioglitazone.

A couple of advantages of pioglitazone include that it is generic (inexpensive) and that it is dosed once daily.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I cover pioglitazone pharmacology. The primary mechanism of action with pioglitazone is that it is an agonist at Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma receptor. This improves insulin sensitivty in the periphery. On this episode, I cover pioglitazone pharmacology. The primary mechanism of action with pioglitazone is that it is an agonist at Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma receptor. This improves insulin sensitivty in the periphery.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Two common side effects exist with pioglitazone. This drug can cause weight gain and also contribute to edema.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Pioglitazone has a boxed warning and is contraindicated in patients who have symptomatic heart failure.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are a few potential interactions with pioglitazone. Trimethoprim and gemfibrozil can inhibit the breakdown of pioglitazone.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> A couple of advantages of pioglitazone include that it is generic (inexpensive) and that it is dosed once daily. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:06
Nitrofurantoin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/nitrofurantoin-pharmacology/ Thu, 14 Mar 2019 16:28:55 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=419 On this episode I breakdown nitrofurantoin pharmacology. Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of UTI's. Nitrofurantoin has activity by creating reactive metabolites that can disrupt protein synthesis and ultimately kills the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to remember with nitrofurantoin, that in the setting of systemic infection and/or kidney involvement, the drug may not be very effective. Nitrofurantoin can potentially reduce the effectiveness of certain vaccines. Be sure to look this up prior to administration. Nitrofurantoin can cause pulmonary symptoms as well as neuropathy. This is very important to monitor for. On this episode I breakdown nitrofurantoin pharmacology. Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of UTI’s.

Nitrofurantoin has activity by creating reactive metabolites that can disrupt protein synthesis and ultimately kills the bacteria causing the infection.

It is important to remember with nitrofurantoin, that in the setting of systemic infection and/or kidney involvement, the drug may not be very effective.

Nitrofurantoin can potentially reduce the effectiveness of certain vaccines. Be sure to look this up prior to administration.

Nitrofurantoin can cause pulmonary symptoms as well as neuropathy. This is very important to monitor for.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode I breakdown nitrofurantoin pharmacology. Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of UTI's. Nitrofurantoin has activity by creating reactive metabolites that can disrupt protein synthesis and ultimately kills the... On this episode I breakdown nitrofurantoin pharmacology. Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of UTI's.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nitrofurantoin has activity by creating reactive metabolites that can disrupt protein synthesis and ultimately kills the bacteria causing the infection.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is important to remember with nitrofurantoin, that in the setting of systemic infection and/or kidney involvement, the drug may not be very effective.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nitrofurantoin can potentially reduce the effectiveness of certain vaccines. Be sure to look this up prior to administration.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Nitrofurantoin can cause pulmonary symptoms as well as neuropathy. This is very important to monitor for. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:26
Hydralazine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/hydralazine-pharmacology/ Thu, 07 Mar 2019 19:52:13 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=416 Hydralazine Pharmacology Hydralazine works as a direct vasodilator. It primarily works on the arterioles versus the venous system. Hydralazine can cause a unique adverse reaction. It can cause a Lupus type syndrome that can result in fever, myopathy and symptoms that mimic arthritis. I discuss drug interactions with hydralazine and how you need to be aware of certain medications that can have additive effects and also those that can oppose the effects of the drug. One of the downsides to using hydralazine is that patients don't like to take it as often as it requires. It is typically dosed three to four times per day. Orthostasis is a risk with any drug that reduces blood pressure and hydralazine is no different. Hydralazine Pharmacology

Hydralazine works as a direct vasodilator. It primarily works on the arterioles versus the venous system.

Hydralazine can cause a unique adverse reaction. It can cause a Lupus type syndrome that can result in fever, myopathy and symptoms that mimic arthritis.

I discuss drug interactions with hydralazine and how you need to be aware of certain medications that can have additive effects and also those that can oppose the effects of the drug.

One of the downsides to using hydralazine is that patients don’t like to take it as often as it requires. It is typically dosed three to four times per day.

Orthostasis is a risk with any drug that reduces blood pressure and hydralazine is no different.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Hydralazine Pharmacology Hydralazine works as a direct vasodilator. It primarily works on the arterioles versus the venous system. Hydralazine can cause a unique adverse reaction. It can cause a Lupus type syndrome that can result in fever, Hydralazine Pharmacology<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hydralazine works as a direct vasodilator. It primarily works on the arterioles versus the venous system.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Hydralazine can cause a unique adverse reaction. It can cause a Lupus type syndrome that can result in fever, myopathy and symptoms that mimic arthritis.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> I discuss drug interactions with hydralazine and how you need to be aware of certain medications that can have additive effects and also those that can oppose the effects of the drug.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> One of the downsides to using hydralazine is that patients don't like to take it as often as it requires. It is typically dosed three to four times per day.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Orthostasis is a risk with any drug that reduces blood pressure and hydralazine is no different. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:26
Aspirin Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/aspirin-pharmacology/ Thu, 28 Feb 2019 17:52:08 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=408 On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss aspirin pharmacology. The two most common adverse effects with aspirin are GI upset and increasing the risk for bleeding and bruising. A commonly asked test question about aspirin is whether it can be used in pediatrics and what risk we encounter if we use it. Another rare effect with aspirin is tinnitus which I discuss further on this episode. It is critical to pay attention to other medications that can thin the blood in a patient taking aspirin. Examples include anticoagulants like warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban; antiplatelets like clopidogrel or prasugrel; or NSAIDs. On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss aspirin pharmacology.

The two most common adverse effects with aspirin are GI upset and increasing the risk for bleeding and bruising.

A commonly asked test question about aspirin is whether it can be used in pediatrics and what risk we encounter if we use it.

Another rare effect with aspirin is tinnitus which I discuss further on this episode.

It is critical to pay attention to other medications that can thin the blood in a patient taking aspirin. Examples include anticoagulants like warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban; antiplatelets like clopidogrel or prasugrel; or NSAIDs.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss aspirin pharmacology. The two most common adverse effects with aspirin are GI upset and increasing the risk for bleeding and bruising. On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss aspirin pharmacology.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The two most common adverse effects with aspirin are GI upset and increasing the risk for bleeding and bruising.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> A commonly asked test question about aspirin is whether it can be used in pediatrics and what risk we encounter if we use it.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Another rare effect with aspirin is tinnitus which I discuss further on this episode.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is critical to pay attention to other medications that can thin the blood in a patient taking aspirin. Examples include anticoagulants like warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban; antiplatelets like clopidogrel or prasugrel; or NSAIDs. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:50
Clonidine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/clonidine-pharmacology/ Fri, 22 Feb 2019 03:05:13 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=404 Clonidine is classified as an antihypertensive. Clonidine pharmacology involves having agonist activity at central alpha 2 receptors. This leads to lower sympathetic outflow and a reduction in blood pressure. Clonidine has numerous reported uses in addition to its antihypertensive effect. It can potentially be used for ADHD, menopausal type symptoms, and opioid withdrawal. Clonidine has historically been on the Beers' list of drugs as it can cause some CNS side effects like sedation, dizziness, and rarely delirium. Clonidine is unique in the antihypertensive class as it does have a patch formulation. Because of the blood pressure lowering effect of clonidine, we have to be aware of patients who report dizziness. Monitoring is critical. Clonidine can also lower heart rate and contribute to dry mouth. Keep an eye out for drugs that can have a cumulative effect on these symptoms. Drugs like beta-blockers, non-DHP CCB's, and digoxin can all have a cumulative effect with clonidine and lower pulses. Monitoring is important. Clonidine is classified as an antihypertensive. Clonidine pharmacology involves having agonist activity at central alpha 2 receptors. This leads to lower sympathetic outflow and a reduction in blood pressure.

Clonidine has numerous reported uses in addition to its antihypertensive effect. It can potentially be used for ADHD, menopausal type symptoms, and opioid withdrawal.

Clonidine has historically been on the Beers’ list of drugs as it can cause some CNS side effects like sedation, dizziness, and rarely delirium.

Clonidine is unique in the antihypertensive class as it does have a patch formulation.

Because of the blood pressure lowering effect of clonidine, we have to be aware of patients who report dizziness. Monitoring is critical.

Clonidine can also lower heart rate and contribute to dry mouth. Keep an eye out for drugs that can have a cumulative effect on these symptoms.

Drugs like beta-blockers, non-DHP CCB’s, and digoxin can all have a cumulative effect with clonidine and lower pulses. Monitoring is important.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Clonidine is classified as an antihypertensive. Clonidine pharmacology involves having agonist activity at central alpha 2 receptors. This leads to lower sympathetic outflow and a reduction in blood pressure. Clonidine is classified as an antihypertensive. Clonidine pharmacology involves having agonist activity at central alpha 2 receptors. This leads to lower sympathetic outflow and a reduction in blood pressure.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clonidine has numerous reported uses in addition to its antihypertensive effect. It can potentially be used for ADHD, menopausal type symptoms, and opioid withdrawal.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clonidine has historically been on the Beers' list of drugs as it can cause some CNS side effects like sedation, dizziness, and rarely delirium.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clonidine is unique in the antihypertensive class as it does have a patch formulation.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Because of the blood pressure lowering effect of clonidine, we have to be aware of patients who report dizziness. Monitoring is critical.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Clonidine can also lower heart rate and contribute to dry mouth. Keep an eye out for drugs that can have a cumulative effect on these symptoms.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Drugs like beta-blockers, non-DHP CCB's, and digoxin can all have a cumulative effect with clonidine and lower pulses. Monitoring is important. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:28
Memantine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/memantine-pharmacology/ Thu, 14 Feb 2019 21:24:44 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=401 Memantine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Memantine pharmacology is complex as is the pharmacology of any medication working in the brain. This drug can help reduce the activity of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter which can play a role in Alzheimer's dementia. Memantine has an extended release dosage form that is dosed once per day compared to twice per day for the immediate release. However, the cost of the extended release is much more expensive, so it is recommended to begin with the immediate release. Memantine is cleared by the kidney. In patients with reduced kidney function, you must review to assess if the memantine dose needs to be adjusted. When using memantine or other dementia medications, be sure to look out for medications that can cause dementia type symptoms. CNS depressants like benzodiazepines, sleep medicines, and anticholinergics are all examples of meds that could exacerbate dementia. Memantine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Memantine pharmacology is complex as is the pharmacology of any medication working in the brain. This drug can help reduce the activity of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter which can play a role in Alzheimer’s dementia.

Memantine has an extended release dosage form that is dosed once per day compared to twice per day for the immediate release. However, the cost of the extended release is much more expensive, so it is recommended to begin with the immediate release.

Memantine is cleared by the kidney. In patients with reduced kidney function, you must review to assess if the memantine dose needs to be adjusted.

When using memantine or other dementia medications, be sure to look out for medications that can cause dementia type symptoms. CNS depressants like benzodiazepines, sleep medicines, and anticholinergics are all examples of meds that could exacerbate dementia.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Memantine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Memantine pharmacology is complex as is the pharmacology of any medication working in the brain. This drug can help reduce the activity of glutamate, Memantine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. Memantine pharmacology is complex as is the pharmacology of any medication working in the brain. This drug can help reduce the activity of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter which can play a role in Alzheimer's dementia.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Memantine has an extended release dosage form that is dosed once per day compared to twice per day for the immediate release. However, the cost of the extended release is much more expensive, so it is recommended to begin with the immediate release.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Memantine is cleared by the kidney. In patients with reduced kidney function, you must review to assess if the memantine dose needs to be adjusted.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> When using memantine or other dementia medications, be sure to look out for medications that can cause dementia type symptoms. CNS depressants like benzodiazepines, sleep medicines, and anticholinergics are all examples of meds that could exacerbate dementia. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:09
Magnesium Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/magnesium-pharmacology/ Thu, 07 Feb 2019 17:46:05 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=397 On this episode, I discuss magnesium pharmacology and the clinical applications. Magnesium plays numerous important functions in the body and you may see patients take these supplements under the direction of a healthcare professional and sometimes on their own. It is very important to remember that magnesium can cause GI upset and diarrhea. This is often overlooked in our polypharmacy patient. Magnesium can accumulate in renal disease. This is important to remember especially in patients who have a tendency to take a lot of supplements without discussing them with a healthcare professional. PPI's are a notorious cause of low magnesium. Loop diuretics can increase magnesium excretion and also cause low magnesium levels. Magnesium can bind up numerous drugs reducing concentrations and leading to treatment failure. A few examples include quinolone antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, and levothyroxine. On this episode, I discuss magnesium pharmacology and the clinical applications. Magnesium plays numerous important functions in the body and you may see patients take these supplements under the direction of a healthcare professional and sometimes on their own.

It is very important to remember that magnesium can cause GI upset and diarrhea. This is often overlooked in our polypharmacy patient.

Magnesium can accumulate in renal disease. This is important to remember especially in patients who have a tendency to take a lot of supplements without discussing them with a healthcare professional.

PPI’s are a notorious cause of low magnesium. Loop diuretics can increase magnesium excretion and also cause low magnesium levels.

Magnesium can bind up numerous drugs reducing concentrations and leading to treatment failure. A few examples include quinolone antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, and levothyroxine.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss magnesium pharmacology and the clinical applications. Magnesium plays numerous important functions in the body and you may see patients take these supplements under the direction of a healthcare professional and sometimes on ... On this episode, I discuss magnesium pharmacology and the clinical applications. Magnesium plays numerous important functions in the body and you may see patients take these supplements under the direction of a healthcare professional and sometimes on their own.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> It is very important to remember that magnesium can cause GI upset and diarrhea. This is often overlooked in our polypharmacy patient.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Magnesium can accumulate in renal disease. This is important to remember especially in patients who have a tendency to take a lot of supplements without discussing them with a healthcare professional.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> PPI's are a notorious cause of low magnesium. Loop diuretics can increase magnesium excretion and also cause low magnesium levels.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Magnesium can bind up numerous drugs reducing concentrations and leading to treatment failure. A few examples include quinolone antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, and levothyroxine. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:16
Trazodone Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/trazodone-pharmacology/ Thu, 31 Jan 2019 14:21:00 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=341 Trazodone pharmacology is complex. It can inhibit serotonin reuptake, block histamine receptors, and possibly have alpha-blocking activity. Side effects of trazodone include sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth. Rarely, priapism may occur. I've seen this nugget come up on pharmacology exams! While trazodone is classified as antidepressant, it is often used to help manage insomnia. Trazodone can possibly prolong the QT interval. Risk of other medications and patient specific parameters should be considered. Trazodone concentrations can be increased with the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and reduced with 3A4 inducers. Trazodone pharmacology is complex. It can inhibit serotonin reuptake, block histamine receptors, and possibly have alpha-blocking activity.

Side effects of trazodone include sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth. Rarely, priapism may occur. I’ve seen this nugget come up on pharmacology exams!

While trazodone is classified as antidepressant, it is often used to help manage insomnia.

Trazodone can possibly prolong the QT interval. Risk of other medications and patient specific parameters should be considered.

Trazodone concentrations can be increased with the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and reduced with 3A4 inducers.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Trazodone pharmacology is complex. It can inhibit serotonin reuptake, block histamine receptors, and possibly have alpha-blocking activity. Side effects of trazodone include sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth. Rarely, priapism may occur. Trazodone pharmacology is complex. It can inhibit serotonin reuptake, block histamine receptors, and possibly have alpha-blocking activity.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Side effects of trazodone include sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth. Rarely, priapism may occur. I've seen this nugget come up on pharmacology exams!<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> While trazodone is classified as antidepressant, it is often used to help manage insomnia.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Trazodone can possibly prolong the QT interval. Risk of other medications and patient specific parameters should be considered.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Trazodone concentrations can be increased with the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and reduced with 3A4 inducers. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:06
GLP-1 Agonist Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/glp-1-agonist-pharmacology/ Thu, 24 Jan 2019 19:16:37 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=332 The GLP-1's are a relatively newer class of medications used to lower blood sugars in diabetes. GLP-1's work by simulating the effects of incretin hormones in the body. They can help promote fullness, lower weight, and stimulate insulin release following a meal. GLP-1's can cause significant GI side effects. Nausea is by far the most common adverse effect. It can even lead to diarrhea and vomiting in some cases. There is boxed warning on the GLP-1 agonists. Be aware of patients who have had a history of thyroid cancer as this may be a contraindication. GLP-1 agonists can help lower A1C and stimulate weight loss which is a huge benefit for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. The GLP-1’s are a relatively newer class of medications used to lower blood sugars in diabetes.

GLP-1’s work by simulating the effects of incretin hormones in the body. They can help promote fullness, lower weight, and stimulate insulin release following a meal.

GLP-1’s can cause significant GI side effects. Nausea is by far the most common adverse effect. It can even lead to diarrhea and vomiting in some cases.

There is boxed warning on the GLP-1 agonists. Be aware of patients who have had a history of thyroid cancer as this may be a contraindication.

GLP-1 agonists can help lower A1C and stimulate weight loss which is a huge benefit for most patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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The GLP-1's are a relatively newer class of medications used to lower blood sugars in diabetes. GLP-1's work by simulating the effects of incretin hormones in the body. They can help promote fullness, lower weight, The GLP-1's are a relatively newer class of medications used to lower blood sugars in diabetes.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GLP-1's work by simulating the effects of incretin hormones in the body. They can help promote fullness, lower weight, and stimulate insulin release following a meal. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GLP-1's can cause significant GI side effects. Nausea is by far the most common adverse effect. It can even lead to diarrhea and vomiting in some cases.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There is boxed warning on the GLP-1 agonists. Be aware of patients who have had a history of thyroid cancer as this may be a contraindication.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> GLP-1 agonists can help lower A1C and stimulate weight loss which is a huge benefit for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:25
Iron Supplement Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/iron-supplement-pharmacology/ Thu, 17 Jan 2019 18:02:38 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=329 Iron supplements frequently cause GI upset. Monitor patients for nausea, vomiting, and constipation issues. There are three main salt forms of iron. Ferrous fumurate has the most elemental iron, ferrous sulfate (2nd most), and ferrous gluconate has the least. Iron can bind up antibiotics and reduce their effectiveness. Two classic examples include the quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics. Anemia can be caused by numerous concerns, however, iron deficiency is a very common cause. Ferritin is a lab that we commonly monitor in a patient who may be iron deficient. Iron deficiency can also lead to symptoms of Restless Leg Syndrome. Iron supplements frequently cause GI upset. Monitor patients for nausea, vomiting, and constipation issues.

There are three main salt forms of iron. Ferrous fumurate has the most elemental iron, ferrous sulfate (2nd most), and ferrous gluconate has the least.

Iron can bind up antibiotics and reduce their effectiveness. Two classic examples include the quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics.

Anemia can be caused by numerous concerns, however, iron deficiency is a very common cause.

Ferritin is a lab that we commonly monitor in a patient who may be iron deficient. Iron deficiency can also lead to symptoms of Restless Leg Syndrome.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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Iron supplements frequently cause GI upset. Monitor patients for nausea, vomiting, and constipation issues. There are three main salt forms of iron. Ferrous fumurate has the most elemental iron, ferrous sulfate (2nd most), Iron supplements frequently cause GI upset. Monitor patients for nausea, vomiting, and constipation issues.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are three main salt forms of iron. Ferrous fumurate has the most elemental iron, ferrous sulfate (2nd most), and ferrous gluconate has the least.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Iron can bind up antibiotics and reduce their effectiveness. Two classic examples include the quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Anemia can be caused by numerous concerns, however, iron deficiency is a very common cause.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Ferritin is a lab that we commonly monitor in a patient who may be iron deficient. Iron deficiency can also lead to symptoms of Restless Leg Syndrome. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:00
Loop Diuretics Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/loop-diuretics-pharmacology/ Thu, 10 Jan 2019 20:10:03 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=322 On this episode, I cover common loop diuretics. They include furosemide, torsemide, and bumetanide. Loop diuretics are potent agents that can help in the management of heart failure and ascites. Loops diuretics help promote the loss of excessive fluid through the urine. A common patient complaint from loop diuretics is that they can cause frequent urination. Because of this, we typically dose these drugs earlier in the day. Kidney function and electrolyte monitoring is critical with the use of loop diuretics. Enjoy the episode! On this episode, I cover common loop diuretics. They include furosemide, torsemide, and bumetanide.

Loop diuretics are potent agents that can help in the management of heart failure and ascites.

Loops diuretics help promote the loss of excessive fluid through the urine.

A common patient complaint from loop diuretics is that they can cause frequent urination. Because of this, we typically dose these drugs earlier in the day.

Kidney function and electrolyte monitoring is critical with the use of loop diuretics.

Enjoy the episode!

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I cover common loop diuretics. They include furosemide, torsemide, and bumetanide. Loop diuretics are potent agents that can help in the management of heart failure and ascites. Loops diuretics help promote the loss of excessive... On this episode, I cover common loop diuretics. They include furosemide, torsemide, and bumetanide.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Loop diuretics are potent agents that can help in the management of heart failure and ascites.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Loops diuretics help promote the loss of excessive fluid through the urine.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> A common patient complaint from loop diuretics is that they can cause frequent urination. Because of this, we typically dose these drugs earlier in the day.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Kidney function and electrolyte monitoring is critical with the use of loop diuretics.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Enjoy the episode! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:47
Methotrexate Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/methotrexate-pharmacology/ Thu, 03 Jan 2019 12:30:36 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=312 On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I cover the pharmacology of methotrexate. Methotrexate has a few different indications. It can be used for treatment of cancer. These doses are typically going to be much higher than standard low doses for other conditions. Lower dose methotrexate is often used for autoimmune type conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Folic acid should be supplemented with use of methotrexate to help reduce the risk of adverse effects. Liver toxicity and immune system suppression are two important factors to monitor in a patient taking chronic methotrexate. I also talk about important cumulative drug interactions with methotrexate such as immunosuppressives and other agents that may impact liver function. Be sure to listen to the end as I talk about the potential impact of methotrexate on some vaccines! On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I cover the pharmacology of methotrexate.

Methotrexate has a few different indications. It can be used for treatment of cancer. These doses are typically going to be much higher than standard low doses for other conditions.

Lower dose methotrexate is often used for autoimmune type conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.

Folic acid should be supplemented with use of methotrexate to help reduce the risk of adverse effects.

Liver toxicity and immune system suppression are two important factors to monitor in a patient taking chronic methotrexate.

I also talk about important cumulative drug interactions with methotrexate such as immunosuppressives and other agents that may impact liver function.

Be sure to listen to the end as I talk about the potential impact of methotrexate on some vaccines!

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I cover the pharmacology of methotrexate. Methotrexate has a few different indications. It can be used for treatment of cancer. These doses are typically going to be much higher than standard ... On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I cover the pharmacology of methotrexate.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Methotrexate has a few different indications. It can be used for treatment of cancer. These doses are typically going to be much higher than standard low doses for other conditions.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Lower dose methotrexate is often used for autoimmune type conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Folic acid should be supplemented with use of methotrexate to help reduce the risk of adverse effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Liver toxicity and immune system suppression are two important factors to monitor in a patient taking chronic methotrexate.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> I also talk about important cumulative drug interactions with methotrexate such as immunosuppressives and other agents that may impact liver function.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be sure to listen to the end as I talk about the potential impact of methotrexate on some vaccines! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:17
Cyclobenzaprine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/cyclobenzaprine-pharmacology/ Thu, 27 Dec 2018 21:05:04 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=307 On this episode, I discuss cyclobenzaprine pharmacology. Cyclobenzaprine is an older skeletal muscle relaxant. Cyclobenzaprine can have a significant number of anticholinergic side effects. The anticholinergic side effects of cyclobenzaprine can include sedation, dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and confusion. Cyclobenzaprine is not well tolerated in the elderly and cause more problems in that patient population. Cyclobenzaprine has a similar structure to the Tricyclic antidepressants. On this episode, I discuss cyclobenzaprine pharmacology. Cyclobenzaprine is an older skeletal muscle relaxant.

Cyclobenzaprine can have a significant number of anticholinergic side effects.

The anticholinergic side effects of cyclobenzaprine can include sedation, dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and confusion.

Cyclobenzaprine is not well tolerated in the elderly and cause more problems in that patient population.

Cyclobenzaprine has a similar structure to the Tricyclic antidepressants.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!


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On this episode, I discuss cyclobenzaprine pharmacology. Cyclobenzaprine is an older skeletal muscle relaxant. Cyclobenzaprine can have a significant number of anticholinergic side effects. The anticholinergic side effects of cyclobenzaprine can ... On this episode, I discuss cyclobenzaprine pharmacology. Cyclobenzaprine is an older skeletal muscle relaxant.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cyclobenzaprine can have a significant number of anticholinergic side effects.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The anticholinergic side effects of cyclobenzaprine can include sedation, dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, and confusion.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cyclobenzaprine is not well tolerated in the elderly and cause more problems in that patient population.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Cyclobenzaprine has a similar structure to the Tricyclic antidepressants. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:16
Lithium Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/lithium-pharmacology/ Thu, 20 Dec 2018 19:07:54 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=304 Lithium is a drug that has a ton of clinical pearls.  On this episode, I talk about the pharmacology, side effects, drug interactions, and critical practice pearls. Kidney function is very important to monitor in our patients taking lithium.  Lithium can accumulate in renal impairment. Thyroid function can be altered by lithium.  Be sure to regularly monitor TSH in a patient on chronic lithium. Over-the-counter NSAID can interact and raise lithium levels.  This is something you need to watch out for as patients can begin taking these medications on their own without supervision. Be sure to assess lithium levels.  Signs of toxicity can include GI upset, tremor, motor movement issues, sedation, and CNS changes. Lithium is a drug that has a ton of clinical pearls.  On this episode, I talk about the pharmacology, side effects, drug interactions, and critical practice pearls.

Kidney function is very important to monitor in our patients taking lithium.  Lithium can accumulate in renal impairment.

Thyroid function can be altered by lithium.  Be sure to regularly monitor TSH in a patient on chronic lithium.

Over-the-counter NSAID can interact and raise lithium levels.  This is something you need to watch out for as patients can begin taking these medications on their own without supervision.

Be sure to assess lithium levels.  Signs of toxicity can include GI upset, tremor, motor movement issues, sedation, and CNS changes.

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Lithium is a drug that has a ton of clinical pearls.  On this episode, I talk about the pharmacology, side effects, drug interactions, and critical practice pearls. Kidney function is very important to monitor in our patients taking lithium. Lithium is a drug that has a ton of clinical pearls.  On this episode, I talk about the pharmacology, side effects, drug interactions, and critical practice pearls.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Kidney function is very important to monitor in our patients taking lithium.  Lithium can accumulate in renal impairment.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Thyroid function can be altered by lithium.  Be sure to regularly monitor TSH in a patient on chronic lithium.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Over-the-counter NSAID can interact and raise lithium levels.  This is something you need to watch out for as patients can begin taking these medications on their own without supervision.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Be sure to assess lithium levels.  Signs of toxicity can include GI upset, tremor, motor movement issues, sedation, and CNS changes. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:23
Pseudoephedrine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/pseudoephedrine-pharmacology/ Thu, 13 Dec 2018 20:29:02 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=302 Pseudoephedrine is commonly used to help relieve nasal congestion. There are some adverse effects you need to be aware of with pseudoephedrine. Insomnia, increase in blood pressure, and urinary retention are all possible. When I assess a patient using pseudoephedrine, I like to investigate blood pressure, history of urinary problems and insomnia history. Pseudoephedrine can cause the prescribing cascade.  I lay out examples in the podcast. Pseudoephedrine should not be utilized with MAOI's if possible - I discuss the reason for this in the podcast. Enjoy the show and don't for get your FREE 31 page resource! Pseudoephedrine is commonly used to help relieve nasal congestion.

There are some adverse effects you need to be aware of with pseudoephedrine. Insomnia, increase in blood pressure, and urinary retention are all possible.

When I assess a patient using pseudoephedrine, I like to investigate blood pressure, history of urinary problems and insomnia history.

Pseudoephedrine can cause the prescribing cascade.  I lay out examples in the podcast.

Pseudoephedrine should not be utilized with MAOI’s if possible – I discuss the reason for this in the podcast.

Enjoy the show and don’t for get your FREE 31 page resource!

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Pseudoephedrine is commonly used to help relieve nasal congestion. There are some adverse effects you need to be aware of with pseudoephedrine. Insomnia, increase in blood pressure, and urinary retention are all possible. Pseudoephedrine is commonly used to help relieve nasal congestion.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> There are some adverse effects you need to be aware of with pseudoephedrine. Insomnia, increase in blood pressure, and urinary retention are all possible.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> When I assess a patient using pseudoephedrine, I like to investigate blood pressure, history of urinary problems and insomnia history.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Pseudoephedrine can cause the prescribing cascade.  I lay out examples in the podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Pseudoephedrine should not be utilized with MAOI's if possible - I discuss the reason for this in the podcast.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Enjoy the show and don't for get your FREE 31 page resource! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:30
Fentanyl Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/fentanyl-pharmcology/ Thu, 06 Dec 2018 22:09:51 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=295 On this episode, I discuss fentanyl pharmacology. I address important considerations that you must remember with fentanyl patches. Those considerations include how pharmacokinetics can impact our patients. I also break down common side effects of opioids as well as potential common drug interactions. Drug diversion and illicit use is an important consideration when using fentanyl.  I also touch on this topic. Nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals have signed up and received this FREE Top 200 Study Guide - Why haven't you? On this episode, I discuss fentanyl pharmacology.

I address important considerations that you must remember with fentanyl patches.

Those considerations include how pharmacokinetics can impact our patients.

I also break down common side effects of opioids as well as potential common drug interactions.

Drug diversion and illicit use is an important consideration when using fentanyl.  I also touch on this topic.

Nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals have signed up and received this FREE Top 200 Study Guide – Why haven’t you?

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On this episode, I discuss fentanyl pharmacology. I address important considerations that you must remember with fentanyl patches. Those considerations include how pharmacokinetics can impact our patients. On this episode, I discuss fentanyl pharmacology.<br /> <br /> I address important considerations that you must remember with fentanyl patches.<br /> <br /> Those considerations include how pharmacokinetics can impact our patients.<br /> <br /> I also break down common side effects of opioids as well as potential common drug interactions.<br /> <br /> Drug diversion and illicit use is an important consideration when using fentanyl.  I also touch on this topic.<br /> <br /> Nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals have signed up and received this FREE Top 200 Study Guide - Why haven't you? Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:44
Quinolone Antibiotic Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/quinolone-antibiotic-pharmacology/ Thu, 29 Nov 2018 18:58:41 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=292 Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that can be used for various infections. I discuss the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and other items on this podcast episode. On this episode, I talk about the warnings associated with quinolones. Quinolone use has subsided over time, not due to the fact that they are ineffective, but to rising concerns and warnings about adverse effects. Quinolones can interact with quite a few medications.  I've seen a case of amiodarone and levofloxacin contributing to QTc prolongation which I discuss on this episode. It is critical to remember the binding interactions associated with quinolones as these can potentially lead to treatment failure. Enjoy the show and be sure to snag your FREE 31 page PDF on the top 200 drugs, a gift simply for following the podcast! Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that can be used for various infections. I discuss the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and other items on this podcast episode.

On this episode, I talk about the warnings associated with quinolones.

Quinolone use has subsided over time, not due to the fact that they are ineffective, but to rising concerns and warnings about adverse effects.

Quinolones can interact with quite a few medications.  I’ve seen a case of amiodarone and levofloxacin contributing to QTc prolongation which I discuss on this episode.

It is critical to remember the binding interactions associated with quinolones as these can potentially lead to treatment failure.

Enjoy the show and be sure to snag your FREE 31 page PDF on the top 200 drugs, a gift simply for following the podcast!

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Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that can be used for various infections. I discuss the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and other items on this podcast episode. On this episode, I talk about the warnings associated with quinolone... Quinolones are a class of antibiotics that can be used for various infections. I discuss the pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and other items on this podcast episode.<br /> <br /> On this episode, I talk about the warnings associated with quinolones.<br /> <br /> Quinolone use has subsided over time, not due to the fact that they are ineffective, but to rising concerns and warnings about adverse effects.<br /> <br /> Quinolones can interact with quite a few medications.  I've seen a case of amiodarone and levofloxacin contributing to QTc prolongation which I discuss on this episode.<br /> <br /> It is critical to remember the binding interactions associated with quinolones as these can potentially lead to treatment failure.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the show and be sure to snag your FREE 31 page PDF on the top 200 drugs, a gift simply for following the podcast! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 9:00
Potassium Supplement Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/potassium-supplement-pharmacology/ Thu, 22 Nov 2018 19:16:11 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=287 On this episode I discuss why we may need to use potassium supplements. I also talk about a medication error situation involving potassium that lead to a death. It is important to remember other medications that can raise potassium levels. I also talk about a dosage form of potassium that might make patients ask some questions. Enjoy the show and I hope you sign up to get our free 31 page PDF!   On this episode I discuss why we may need to use potassium supplements.

I also talk about a medication error situation involving potassium that lead to a death.

It is important to remember other medications that can raise potassium levels.

I also talk about a dosage form of potassium that might make patients ask some questions.

Enjoy the show and I hope you sign up to get our free 31 page PDF!

 

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On this episode I discuss why we may need to use potassium supplements. I also talk about a medication error situation involving potassium that lead to a death. It is important to remember other medications that can raise potassium levels. On this episode I discuss why we may need to use potassium supplements.<br /> <br /> I also talk about a medication error situation involving potassium that lead to a death.<br /> <br /> It is important to remember other medications that can raise potassium levels.<br /> <br /> I also talk about a dosage form of potassium that might make patients ask some questions.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the show and I hope you sign up to get our free 31 page PDF!<br /> <br />   Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 9:17
Apixaban Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/apixaban-pharmacology/ Thu, 15 Nov 2018 18:37:05 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=284 On this episode, I talk about apixaban (Eliquis) pharmacology. I also cover adverse effects like bleeding and what to monitor. Drug interactions are a concern with apixaban and I discuss a few items that you may want to look out for. It is important to remember that apixaban does require dose adjustments in certain situations as well. Check out our free giveaway for healthcare professionals and students.  It is a top 200 study guide of highly testable pearls! (Free 31 page PDF) On this episode, I talk about apixaban (Eliquis) pharmacology.

I also cover adverse effects like bleeding and what to monitor.

Drug interactions are a concern with apixaban and I discuss a few items that you may want to look out for.

It is important to remember that apixaban does require dose adjustments in certain situations as well.

Check out our free giveaway for healthcare professionals and students.  It is a top 200 study guide of highly testable pearls! (Free 31 page PDF)

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On this episode, I talk about apixaban (Eliquis) pharmacology. I also cover adverse effects like bleeding and what to monitor. Drug interactions are a concern with apixaban and I discuss a few items that you may want to look out for. On this episode, I talk about apixaban (Eliquis) pharmacology.<br /> <br /> I also cover adverse effects like bleeding and what to monitor.<br /> <br /> Drug interactions are a concern with apixaban and I discuss a few items that you may want to look out for.<br /> <br /> It is important to remember that apixaban does require dose adjustments in certain situations as well.<br /> <br /> Check out our free giveaway for healthcare professionals and students.  It is a top 200 study guide of highly testable pearls! (Free 31 page PDF) Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 10:54
Metoclopramide (Reglan) Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/metoclopramide-reglan-pharmacology/ Thu, 08 Nov 2018 18:21:34 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=280 Metoclopramide Pharmacology Metoclopramide can block dopamine receptors as part of it's mechanism of action.  I discuss the clinical implications from this in the podcast. Metoclopramide can exacerbate Parkison's disorder so you need to be careful in that type of patient. Metoclopramide is dosed frequently, which can potentially be a downside as far as patient adherence goes. Metoclopramide has a few potential interactions that you should be aware of.  I talk about those in this episode. Be sure to check out The Thrill of the Case on Amazon as I do have a clinical scenario about Reglan (metoclopramide) in that 200+ page book. As always, check out my free Top 200 study guide! Metoclopramide Pharmacology

Metoclopramide can block dopamine receptors as part of it’s mechanism of action.  I discuss the clinical implications from this in the podcast.

Metoclopramide can exacerbate Parkison’s disorder so you need to be careful in that type of patient.

Metoclopramide is dosed frequently, which can potentially be a downside as far as patient adherence goes.

Metoclopramide has a few potential interactions that you should be aware of.  I talk about those in this episode.

Be sure to check out The Thrill of the Case on Amazon as I do have a clinical scenario about Reglan (metoclopramide) in that 200+ page book.

As always, check out my free Top 200 study guide!

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Metoclopramide Pharmacology Metoclopramide can block dopamine receptors as part of it's mechanism of action.  I discuss the clinical implications from this in the podcast. Metoclopramide can exacerbate Parkison's disorder so you need to be careful in ... Metoclopramide Pharmacology<br /> Metoclopramide can block dopamine receptors as part of it's mechanism of action.  I discuss the clinical implications from this in the podcast.<br /> <br /> Metoclopramide can exacerbate Parkison's disorder so you need to be careful in that type of patient.<br /> <br /> Metoclopramide is dosed frequently, which can potentially be a downside as far as patient adherence goes.<br /> <br /> Metoclopramide has a few potential interactions that you should be aware of.  I talk about those in this episode.<br /> <br /> Be sure to check out The Thrill of the Case on Amazon as I do have a clinical scenario about Reglan (metoclopramide) in that 200+ page book.<br /> <br /> As always, check out my free Top 200 study guide! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 9:21
SGLT-2 Inhibitors Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/sglt-2-inhibitors-pharmacology/ Thu, 01 Nov 2018 17:19:08 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=277 On this episode, I discuss the mechanism of action of the SGLT-2 Inhibitors and how they lower blood sugar. These drugs are classically used for diabetes and eliminate blood sugar through the urine. One of the potential side effects is that these drugs can increase the risk of genital infections and urinary tract infections. There is a boxed warning on canagliflozin for its potential to increase the risk of amputation. These drugs also have a mild diuretic type effect and can potentially cause hypotension. Enjoy the show and be sure to sign up to follow the podcast and get your FREE 31 Page Pharmacology Study Guide! If you find the show helpful, please leave us a kind rating and review wherever you are listening! Cheers! Eric Christianson, PharmD, BCGP, BCPS On this episode, I discuss the mechanism of action of the SGLT-2 Inhibitors and how they lower blood sugar.

These drugs are classically used for diabetes and eliminate blood sugar through the urine.

One of the potential side effects is that these drugs can increase the risk of genital infections and urinary tract infections.

There is a boxed warning on canagliflozin for its potential to increase the risk of amputation.

These drugs also have a mild diuretic type effect and can potentially cause hypotension.

Enjoy the show and be sure to sign up to follow the podcast and get your FREE 31 Page Pharmacology Study Guide!

If you find the show helpful, please leave us a kind rating and review wherever you are listening!

Cheers!

Eric Christianson, PharmD, BCGP, BCPS

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On this episode, I discuss the mechanism of action of the SGLT-2 Inhibitors and how they lower blood sugar. These drugs are classically used for diabetes and eliminate blood sugar through the urine. One of the potential side effects is that these dru... On this episode, I discuss the mechanism of action of the SGLT-2 Inhibitors and how they lower blood sugar.<br /> <br /> These drugs are classically used for diabetes and eliminate blood sugar through the urine.<br /> <br /> One of the potential side effects is that these drugs can increase the risk of genital infections and urinary tract infections.<br /> <br /> There is a boxed warning on canagliflozin for its potential to increase the risk of amputation.<br /> <br /> These drugs also have a mild diuretic type effect and can potentially cause hypotension.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the show and be sure to sign up to follow the podcast and get your FREE 31 Page Pharmacology Study Guide!<br /> <br /> If you find the show helpful, please leave us a kind rating and review wherever you are listening!<br /> <br /> Cheers!<br /> <br /> Eric Christianson, PharmD, BCGP, BCPS Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:09
Tetracyclines Pharmacology Episode 038 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/tetracyclines-pharmacology/ Thu, 25 Oct 2018 18:54:37 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=274 On this episode, I discuss how the tetracyclines impact bacterial protein synthesis. I also remind you of several medications that fall in the tetracycline class.  Doxycycline is by far the medication I see used the most. You'll also learn about common side effects like GI upset and photosensitivity. I cover why this class of medication is typically avoided in pediatrics and pregnancy. I hope you enjoy the show and don't forget to snag your FREE 31 page PDF study guide! On this episode, I discuss how the tetracyclines impact bacterial protein synthesis.

I also remind you of several medications that fall in the tetracycline class.  Doxycycline is by far the medication I see used the most.

You’ll also learn about common side effects like GI upset and photosensitivity.

I cover why this class of medication is typically avoided in pediatrics and pregnancy.

I hope you enjoy the show and don’t forget to snag your FREE 31 page PDF study guide!

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On this episode, I discuss how the tetracyclines impact bacterial protein synthesis. I also remind you of several medications that fall in the tetracycline class.  Doxycycline is by far the medication I see used the most. On this episode, I discuss how the tetracyclines impact bacterial protein synthesis.<br /> <br /> I also remind you of several medications that fall in the tetracycline class.  Doxycycline is by far the medication I see used the most.<br /> <br /> You'll also learn about common side effects like GI upset and photosensitivity.<br /> <br /> I cover why this class of medication is typically avoided in pediatrics and pregnancy.<br /> <br /> I hope you enjoy the show and don't forget to snag your FREE 31 page PDF study guide! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 9:04
Allopurinol Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/allopurinol-pharmacology/ Thu, 18 Oct 2018 14:59:37 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=270 I break down the mechanism of action, side effects, and important drug interactions you need to know. I give you a sense of what things you might actually encounter in practice when working with patients who take allopurinol. Allopurinol is a top 200 drug. Remember to subscribe to the website reallifepharmacology.com for the Free 31 page PDF where I give you three highly testable pearls on the top 200 drugs. In addition to the 31 page PDF for subscribing, you will get a free 100 question pharmacology test designed for healthcare professionals. I hope you enjoy this episode the pharmacology of allopurinol! I break down the mechanism of action, side effects, and important drug interactions you need to know. I give you a sense of what things you might actually encounter in practice when working with patients who take allopurinol.

Allopurinol is a top 200 drug. Remember to subscribe to the website reallifepharmacology.com for the Free 31 page PDF where I give you three highly testable pearls on the top 200 drugs.

In addition to the 31 page PDF for subscribing, you will get a free 100 question pharmacology test designed for healthcare professionals.

I hope you enjoy this episode the pharmacology of allopurinol!

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I break down the mechanism of action, side effects, and important drug interactions you need to know. I give you a sense of what things you might actually encounter in practice when working with patients who take allopurinol. I break down the mechanism of action, side effects, and important drug interactions you need to know. I give you a sense of what things you might actually encounter in practice when working with patients who take allopurinol.<br /> <br /> Allopurinol is a top 200 drug. Remember to subscribe to the website reallifepharmacology.com for the Free 31 page PDF where I give you three highly testable pearls on the top 200 drugs.<br /> <br /> In addition to the 31 page PDF for subscribing, you will get a free 100 question pharmacology test designed for healthcare professionals.<br /> <br /> I hope you enjoy this episode the pharmacology of allopurinol! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 8:13
Bupropion Pharmacology – Real Life Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/bupropion-pharmacology-real-life-pharmacology/ Thu, 11 Oct 2018 21:46:45 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=266 In this episode I discuss bupropion pharmacology.  I cover the mechanism of action, side effects, and some relevant drug interactions. Important information in this episode includes: Possible indications for bupropion like depression and smoking cessation Risk of lowering seizure threshold Inhibition of CYP2D6 Dosage form considerations Pearls for onset of bupropion's action In this episode I discuss bupropion pharmacology.  I cover the mechanism of action, side effects, and some relevant drug interactions.

Important information in this episode includes:

  • Possible indications for bupropion like depression and smoking cessation
  • Risk of lowering seizure threshold
  • Inhibition of CYP2D6
  • Dosage form considerations
  • Pearls for onset of bupropion’s action
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In this episode I discuss bupropion pharmacology.  I cover the mechanism of action, side effects, and some relevant drug interactions. Important information in this episode includes: Possible indications for bupropion like depression and smoking ce... In this episode I discuss bupropion pharmacology.  I cover the mechanism of action, side effects, and some relevant drug interactions.<br /> <br /> Important information in this episode includes:<br /> <br /> Possible indications for bupropion like depression and smoking cessation<br /> Risk of lowering seizure threshold<br /> Inhibition of CYP2D6<br /> Dosage form considerations<br /> Pearls for onset of bupropion's action Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:48
Mirtazapine Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/mirtazapine-pharmacology/ Thu, 04 Oct 2018 18:45:26 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=260 On this episode, I cover mirtazapine pharmacology. We will review how mirtazapine works in the body and how those cause adverse effects and benefit out patient. I will also look at the side effect profile and why mirtazapine may be harmful or helpful in our patients. We cover drug interactions for mirtazapine in the podcast as well. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant and I mention discontinuation syndrome as well as what I see as being done when converting a patient from one antidepressant to another. Enjoy the show and don't for get to get your free gift by subscribing! On this episode, I cover mirtazapine pharmacology.

We will review how mirtazapine works in the body and how those cause adverse effects and benefit out patient.

I will also look at the side effect profile and why mirtazapine may be harmful or helpful in our patients.

We cover drug interactions for mirtazapine in the podcast as well.

Mirtazapine is an antidepressant and I mention discontinuation syndrome as well as what I see as being done when converting a patient from one antidepressant to another.

Enjoy the show and don’t for get to get your free gift by subscribing!

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On this episode, I cover mirtazapine pharmacology. We will review how mirtazapine works in the body and how those cause adverse effects and benefit out patient. I will also look at the side effect profile and why mirtazapine may be harmful or helpful... On this episode, I cover mirtazapine pharmacology.<br /> <br /> We will review how mirtazapine works in the body and how those cause adverse effects and benefit out patient.<br /> <br /> I will also look at the side effect profile and why mirtazapine may be harmful or helpful in our patients.<br /> <br /> We cover drug interactions for mirtazapine in the podcast as well.<br /> <br /> Mirtazapine is an antidepressant and I mention discontinuation syndrome as well as what I see as being done when converting a patient from one antidepressant to another.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the show and don't for get to get your free gift by subscribing! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:10
Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/serotonin-and-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitors-pharmacology/ Thu, 27 Sep 2018 19:30:29 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=258 The Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors are a class of medication used for various mental health disorder and pain syndromes.  I talk about the pharmacology of the SNRI's and how it relates to their adverse effect profile.  The pharmacology of SNRI's also plays an important role in why they are efficacious for treatment of pain compared to the SSRI's.  In addition to the adverse effects, I will outline some common drug interactions and which medications might be affected by the SNRI's. Enjoy the episode and I hope you pick up some clinical practice pearls with the SNRI's!  Don't forget to take advantage of our free giveaway as well, nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals and students have already done so! The Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors are a class of medication used for various mental health disorder and pain syndromes.  I talk about the pharmacology of the SNRI’s and how it relates to their adverse effect profile.  The pharmacology of SNRI’s also plays an important role in why they are efficacious for treatment of pain compared to the SSRI’s.  In addition to the adverse effects, I will outline some common drug interactions and which medications might be affected by the SNRI’s. Enjoy the episode and I hope you pick up some clinical practice pearls with the SNRI’s!  Don’t forget to take advantage of our free giveaway as well, nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals and students have already done so!

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The Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors are a class of medication used for various mental health disorder and pain syndromes.  I talk about the pharmacology of the SNRI's and how it relates to their adverse effect profile. The Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors are a class of medication used for various mental health disorder and pain syndromes.  I talk about the pharmacology of the SNRI's and how it relates to their adverse effect profile.  The pharmacology of SNRI's also plays an important role in why they are efficacious for treatment of pain compared to the SSRI's.  In addition to the adverse effects, I will outline some common drug interactions and which medications might be affected by the SNRI's. Enjoy the episode and I hope you pick up some clinical practice pearls with the SNRI's!  Don't forget to take advantage of our free giveaway as well, nearly 1,000 healthcare professionals and students have already done so! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:34
Tricyclic Antidepressant Pharmacology https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/tri-cyclic-antidepressant-pharmacology/ Thu, 20 Sep 2018 14:21:07 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=251 The TCA's are one of the older antidepressant type medications that can be used for a whole host of reasons.  They are not without potential concerns however.  I cover the MOA, drug interactions, side effects and clinical practice pearls of the tricyclic antidepressants in this episode. The TCA’s are one of the older antidepressant type medications that can be used for a whole host of reasons.  They are not without potential concerns however.  I cover the MOA, drug interactions, side effects and clinical practice pearls of the tricyclic antidepressants in this episode.

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The TCA's are one of the older antidepressant type medications that can be used for a whole host of reasons.  They are not without potential concerns however.  I cover the MOA, drug interactions, side effects and clinical practice pearls of the tricycl... The TCA's are one of the older antidepressant type medications that can be used for a whole host of reasons.  They are not without potential concerns however.  I cover the MOA, drug interactions, side effects and clinical practice pearls of the tricyclic antidepressants in this episode. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:47
Warfarin Pharmacology Episode 032 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/warfarin-pharmacology-episode-032/ Thu, 13 Sep 2018 15:12:22 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=245 Warfarin is one of the most notorious medications when it comes to drug interactions.  I cover the MOA, side effects, drug interactions, and pharmacology of the medication.  Enjoy the episode and don't for get to subscribe to get our free study resources! Warfarin is one of the most notorious medications when it comes to drug interactions.  I cover the MOA, side effects, drug interactions, and pharmacology of the medication.  Enjoy the episode and don’t for get to subscribe to get our free study resources!

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Warfarin is one of the most notorious medications when it comes to drug interactions.  I cover the MOA, side effects, drug interactions, and pharmacology of the medication.  Enjoy the episode and don't for get to subscribe to get our free study resources! Warfarin is one of the most notorious medications when it comes to drug interactions.  I cover the MOA, side effects, drug interactions, and pharmacology of the medication.  Enjoy the episode and don't for get to subscribe to get our free study resources! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:01
Carbidopa/Levodopa Pharmacology RLP Episode 031 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/carbidopa-levodopa-pharmacology-rlp-episode-031/ Thu, 06 Sep 2018 20:37:22 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=242 On today's episode, I talk about the pharmacology of carbidopa/levodopa.  We cover drug interactions, adverse effects, mechanism of action and why is this drug dose so frequently? Hope you enjoy the show and take advantage of our FREE giveaway, simply for following the show! On today’s episode, I talk about the pharmacology of carbidopa/levodopa.  We cover drug interactions, adverse effects, mechanism of action and why is this drug dose so frequently? Hope you enjoy the show and take advantage of our FREE giveaway, simply for following the show!

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On today's episode, I talk about the pharmacology of carbidopa/levodopa.  We cover drug interactions, adverse effects, mechanism of action and why is this drug dose so frequently? Hope you enjoy the show and take advantage of our FREE giveaway, On today's episode, I talk about the pharmacology of carbidopa/levodopa.  We cover drug interactions, adverse effects, mechanism of action and why is this drug dose so frequently? Hope you enjoy the show and take advantage of our FREE giveaway, simply for following the show! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:53
Aldosterone Antagonist Pharmacology RLP Episode 030 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/aldosterone-antagonist-pharmacology-rlp-episode-030/ Thu, 30 Aug 2018 15:03:15 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=239 On today's episode, I discuss spironolactone and eplerenone.  We cover the mechanism of action, monitoring parameters, adverse effects, and of course notable drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and please take advantage of our FREE giveaway by following the podcast via email! On today’s episode, I discuss spironolactone and eplerenone.  We cover the mechanism of action, monitoring parameters, adverse effects, and of course notable drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and please take advantage of our FREE giveaway by following the podcast via email!

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On today's episode, I discuss spironolactone and eplerenone.  We cover the mechanism of action, monitoring parameters, adverse effects, and of course notable drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and please take advantage of our FREE giveaway by following... On today's episode, I discuss spironolactone and eplerenone.  We cover the mechanism of action, monitoring parameters, adverse effects, and of course notable drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and please take advantage of our FREE giveaway by following the podcast via email! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:01
Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen Pharmacology RLP Episode 029 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/hydrocodone-and-acetaminophen-pharmacology-rlp-episode-029/ Thu, 23 Aug 2018 12:31:25 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=234 On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of hydrocodone.  We also cover adverse effects, clinical use, and important genetic and drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and don't forget to subscribe to the podcast and receive a couple of free gifts! On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of hydrocodone.  We also cover adverse effects, clinical use, and important genetic and drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and don’t forget to subscribe to the podcast and receive a couple of free gifts!

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On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of hydrocodone.  We also cover adverse effects, clinical use, and important genetic and drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and don't forget to subscribe to the podcast and receive a couple of free gifts! On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of hydrocodone.  We also cover adverse effects, clinical use, and important genetic and drug interactions.  Enjoy the show and don't forget to subscribe to the podcast and receive a couple of free gifts! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:40
Gabapentin and Pregabalin Pharmacology Episode 28 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/gabapentin-and-pregabalin-pharmacology-episode-28/ Thu, 16 Aug 2018 13:57:13 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=232 On today's episode, I breakdown the pharmacology of gabapentin and pregabalin and what you will see in clinical practice.  These drugs are most often utilized for pain syndromes.  I cover adverse effects, drug interactions, drug/disease interactions, mechanism of action in this episode. On today’s episode, I breakdown the pharmacology of gabapentin and pregabalin and what you will see in clinical practice.  These drugs are most often utilized for pain syndromes.  I cover adverse effects, drug interactions, drug/disease interactions, mechanism of action in this episode.

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On today's episode, I breakdown the pharmacology of gabapentin and pregabalin and what you will see in clinical practice.  These drugs are most often utilized for pain syndromes.  I cover adverse effects, drug interactions, drug/disease interactions, On today's episode, I breakdown the pharmacology of gabapentin and pregabalin and what you will see in clinical practice.  These drugs are most often utilized for pain syndromes.  I cover adverse effects, drug interactions, drug/disease interactions, mechanism of action in this episode. Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:35
Sulfonylurea Pharmacology RLP Episode 027 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/sulfonylurea-pharmacology-rlp-episode-027/ Thu, 09 Aug 2018 02:06:42 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=229 Sulfonylureas are an older, cheaper class of medication that is used to stimulate insulin secretion and lower blood sugar.  I discuss the pharmacology and what to look out for in real life practice.   Sulfonylureas are an older, cheaper class of medication that is used to stimulate insulin secretion and lower blood sugar.  I discuss the pharmacology and what to look out for in real life practice.

 

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Sulfonylureas are an older, cheaper class of medication that is used to stimulate insulin secretion and lower blood sugar.  I discuss the pharmacology and what to look out for in real life practice.   Sulfonylureas are an older, cheaper class of medication that is used to stimulate insulin secretion and lower blood sugar.  I discuss the pharmacology and what to look out for in real life practice.<br /> <br />   Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:25
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim RLP Episode 026 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/sulfamethoxazole-and-trimethoprim-rlp-episode-026/ Thu, 02 Aug 2018 11:49:43 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=223 On this episode, I discuss sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. We cover mechanism of action, adverse effects, and some really important, clinically relevant drug interactions.  Hope you enjoy the show and be sure to take advantage of our FREE 31 page PDF document on the highly testable pearls of the Top 200 Drugs.  A great resource for any nursing, pharmacy, or midlevel, or med student! On this episode, I discuss sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. We cover mechanism of action, adverse effects, and some really important, clinically relevant drug interactions.  Hope you enjoy the show and be sure to take advantage of our FREE 31 page PDF document on the highly testable pearls of the Top 200 Drugs.  A great resource for any nursing, pharmacy, or midlevel, or med student!

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On this episode, I discuss sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. We cover mechanism of action, adverse effects, and some really important, clinically relevant drug interactions.  Hope you enjoy the show and be sure to take advantage of our FREE 31 page PD... On this episode, I discuss sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. We cover mechanism of action, adverse effects, and some really important, clinically relevant drug interactions.  Hope you enjoy the show and be sure to take advantage of our FREE 31 page PDF document on the highly testable pearls of the Top 200 Drugs.  A great resource for any nursing, pharmacy, or midlevel, or med student! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 12:19
Urinary Anticholinergics RLP Episode 25 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/urinary-anticholinergics-rlp-episode-25/ Thu, 26 Jul 2018 18:06:11 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=220 In this episode I discuss urinary anticholinergics and their effects.  I cover mechanism of action, side effects, clinical practice pearls, and of course some drug interactions to look out for.  Enjoy the episode and be sure to check out our free 31 page pharmacology study guide! In this episode I discuss urinary anticholinergics and their effects.  I cover mechanism of action, side effects, clinical practice pearls, and of course some drug interactions to look out for.  Enjoy the episode and be sure to check out our free 31 page pharmacology study guide!

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In this episode I discuss urinary anticholinergics and their effects.  I cover mechanism of action, side effects, clinical practice pearls, and of course some drug interactions to look out for.  Enjoy the episode and be sure to check out our free 31 pa... In this episode I discuss urinary anticholinergics and their effects.  I cover mechanism of action, side effects, clinical practice pearls, and of course some drug interactions to look out for.  Enjoy the episode and be sure to check out our free 31 page pharmacology study guide! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:56
Thiazide and Thiazide Like Diuretics RLP Episode 24 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/huge-announcement-also-thiazide-and-thiazide-like-diuretics-rlp-episode-24/ Thu, 19 Jul 2018 09:46:02 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=212 Thiazide diuretics are well-known to help with edema and hypertension. Thiazides need to monitored for electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a real and significant possibility. Thiazide diuretics can also raise uric acid which can impact our patients with gout. Pay attention to use in this patient population. I also cover drug interactions and the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics on this episode. Enjoy the show! Thiazide diuretics are well-known to help with edema and hypertension.

Thiazides need to monitored for electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a real and significant possibility.

Thiazide diuretics can also raise uric acid which can impact our patients with gout. Pay attention to use in this patient population.

I also cover drug interactions and the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics on this episode.

Enjoy the show!

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Thiazide diuretics are well-known to help with edema and hypertension. Thiazides need to monitored for electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a real and significant possibility. Thiazide diuretics can also raise uric acid which can impact our patient... Thiazide diuretics are well-known to help with edema and hypertension.<br /> <br /> Thiazides need to monitored for electrolyte imbalances. Hypokalemia is a real and significant possibility.<br /> <br /> Thiazide diuretics can also raise uric acid which can impact our patients with gout. Pay attention to use in this patient population.<br /> <br /> I also cover drug interactions and the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics on this episode.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the show! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 15:23
Short Acting Beta Agonists RLP Episode 023 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/short-acting-beta-agonists-rlp-episode-023/ Thu, 12 Jul 2018 08:13:24 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=209 On this episode we are going to break down the pharmacology of albuterol and levalbuterol.  Other items addressed; Difference between beta-agonists and beta-blockers Rule of 2 Administration pearls and clinical practice problems Enjoy the episode and share it with your friends if you are benefitting from it! On this episode we are going to break down the pharmacology of albuterol and levalbuterol.  Other items addressed;

  • Difference between beta-agonists and beta-blockers
  • Rule of 2
  • Administration pearls and clinical practice problems

Enjoy the episode and share it with your friends if you are benefitting from it!

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On this episode we are going to break down the pharmacology of albuterol and levalbuterol.  Other items addressed; Difference between beta-agonists and beta-blockers Rule of 2 Administration pearls and clinical practice problems On this episode we are going to break down the pharmacology of albuterol and levalbuterol.  Other items addressed;<br /> <br /> Difference between beta-agonists and beta-blockers<br /> Rule of 2<br /> Administration pearls and clinical practice problems<br /> <br /> Enjoy the episode and share it with your friends if you are benefitting from it! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 13:28
Amoxicillin and Augmentin Pharmacology RLP Episode 022 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/amoxicillin-and-augmentin-pharmacology-rlp-episode-022/ Thu, 05 Jul 2018 13:57:08 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=206 On today's Episode, I discuss Amoxcillin and Augmentin. Enjoy the education! On today’s Episode, I discuss Amoxcillin and Augmentin.

Enjoy the education!

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On today's Episode, I discuss Amoxcillin and Augmentin. Enjoy the education! On today's Episode, I discuss Amoxcillin and Augmentin.<br /> <br /> Enjoy the education! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 14:46
Tramadol Pharmacology – RLP Episode 021 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/tramadol-pharmacology-rlp-episode-021/ Thu, 28 Jun 2018 10:49:33 +0000 https://www.reallifepharmacology.com/?p=204 In this episode on tramadol I cover; Mechanism of action Adverse effects Precautions Drug Interactions Clinical Pearls Enjoy the episode! In this episode on tramadol I cover;

  • Mechanism of action
  • Adverse effects
  • Precautions
  • Drug Interactions
  • Clinical Pearls

Enjoy the episode!

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In this episode on tramadol I cover; Mechanism of action Adverse effects Precautions Drug Interactions Clinical Pearls Enjoy the episode! In this episode on tramadol I cover;<br /> <br /> Mechanism of action<br /> Adverse effects<br /> Precautions<br /> Drug Interactions<br /> Clinical Pearls<br /> <br /> Enjoy the episode! Eric Christianson, PharmD; Pharmacology Expert and Clinical Pharmacist clean 11:08