Naproxen Pharmacology

On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss naproxen pharmacology.

Naproxen can raise the concentrations of lithium and increase the risk for toxicity.

Compared to most other NSAIDs, naproxen tends to have a lower cardiovascular risk.

Naproxen can contribute to renal insufficiency, GI bleed risk, and CHF exacerbations.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Leflunomide Pharmacology

leflunomide pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss leflunomide pharmacology. It is classified as a DMARD and is primarily used in rheumatoid arthritis.

Leflunomide carries a boxed warning for hepatoxicity. LFTs must be monitored with its use.

Leflunomide can inhibit CYP2C8 which plays an important role in pioglitazone metabolism. Concentrations of pioglitazone can go up on account of this interaction.

TB screening should be done prior to beginning the immunosuppressant leflunomide.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Baclofen Pharmacology

Baclofen is primarily used for its ability to help relieve muscle spasms. I discuss baclofen pharmacology on this podcast episode.

Baclofen should not be abruptly discontinued as it can cause a significant withdrawal reaction whose symptoms may include fever, spasticity, rhabdomyolysis, and death.

While baclofen generally avoids any issues with CYP enzyme interactions, it is eliminated by the kidney. Renal function changes can alter drug concentrations.

Sedation, confusion, dizziness, hypotension, and GI upset are some of the more common adverse effects of baclofen.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Bromocriptine Pharmacology

bromocriptine pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss bromocriptine pharmacology. It is a dopamine agonist that can be used for hyperprolactinemia and Parkinson’s symptoms.

One of the major side effects of bromocriptine is nausea which stems from its dopamine agonist action.

Because bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist, it can counteract the action of antipsychotics.

Bromocriptine is broken down by CYP3A4, so drug interactions can be common. Erythromycin, some of the azole antifungals, verapamil, grapefruit juice, and diltiazem are all medications that can increase concentrations.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Ibuprofen Pharmacology

ibuprofen pharmacology

On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology Podcast, I discuss ibuprofen pharmacology.

Ibuprofen can raise the concentrations of lithium and increase the risk for toxicity.

Compared to most other NSAIDs, ibuprofen has a relatively short half-life. This explains why it needs to be dosed more frequently than other agents.

Ibuprofen can contribute to renal insufficiency, GI bleed risk, and CHF exacerbations.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Levetiracetam Pharmacology

On this episode of the RLP podcast, I discuss levetiracetam pharmacology.

Levetiracetam is indicated for numerous types of seizures and possibly works by enhancing GABA activity.

Sedation and dizziness are two common adverse effects of levetiracetam.

On this episode, I discuss when and if we might do levetiracetam levels.

Levetiracetam tends to have much fewer drug interactions compared to older agents like phenytoin and carbamazepine.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Lamotrigine Pharmacology

On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology podcast, I discuss the ins and outs of lamotrigine pharmacology.

Lamotrigine has a very slow dose titration schedule due to the risk of drug induced rash.

Sedation, GI upset, and CNS changes are the most common adverse effects associated with lamotrigine.

Lamotrigine concentrations can be increased by valproic acid, so we tend to use lower starting doses.

Phenytoin and carbamazepine can lower concentrations of lamotrigine.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Propofol Pharmacology

On this episode of the Real Life Pharmacology podcast, I breakdown propofol pharmacology.

Propofol is a CNS depressant that is used for general anesthesia.

I discuss propofol infusion syndrome in this episode and what to look out for clinically.

Adding a benzodiazepine or opioid to propofol may have a synergistic effect and the propofol dose may need to be reduced.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Tizanidine Pharmacology

Tizanidine is primarily broken down by CYP1A2. Ciprofloxacin can inhibit CYP1A2 and cause higher tizanidine concentrations.

Tizanidine has a similar classification as clonidine. Pay attention to adverse effects like hypotension and bradycardia.

When patients taking routine tizanidine stop taking it, there is potential for a discontinuation syndrome that may lead to rebound hypertension.

Dry mouth and CNS depression are common adverse effects of tizanidine.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Codeine Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss codeine pharmacology and practical clinical practice pearls.

Codeine is metabolized by CYP2D6 to the active metabolite morphine. I discuss how this can be affected by genetics as well as other medications.

Constipation is a problem with codeine and all opioids in general. Education and making a plan with patients to combat this side effect is important.

Codeine is less potent than other opioids such as fentanyl, hydromorphone, and hydrocodone.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!