Hydroxychloroquine Pharmacology

Hydroxychloroquine is classified as a DMARD and when used chronically, can be helpful in managing rheumatoid arthritis and Lupus.

There have been reports of QTc prolongation with hydroxychloroquine. While not incredibly common, it is important to remember this consideration in patients at risk for QTc prolongation.

Hydroxychloroquine is associated with causing retinopathy. Routine eye exams for monitoring purposes are critical.

Rarely, hydroxychloroquine can be associated with blood disorders like neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. In addition, alterations in liver function have been reported.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Latanoprost Pharmacology

Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2 analog that can help reduce intraocular pressure and manage glaucoma.

Excessive eyelash growth is a potential adverse effect of latanoprost, although some patients may appreciate this.

Patients with a lighter color iris may notice that their eyes are turning more brown with the chronic use of latanoprost.

Corticosteroids are known to increase intraocular pressure and potentially oppose the beneficial effects of latanoprost.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Terbinafine Pharmacology

Terbinafine can inhibit CYP2D6 which plays an important role in the metabolism of many drugs such as metoprolol, fluoxetine, and clozapine.

With terbinafine’s ability to inhibit CYP2D6, it can also increase the risk of treatment failure with drugs like tamoxifen.

When using anti-fungal drugs like terbinafine, remember that fungal infections can often require more time to treat.

Terbinafine has the potential to cause liver impairment. I discuss this further on the podcast.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Alendronate Pharmacology

Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is used in the management of osteoporosis.

In this episode, I discuss osteonecrosis risk and what are some of the risk factors that may increase the chances of this very rare adverse effect.

Binding interactions are so critical with alendronate. They can essentially make the drug useless.

Esophageal irritation and ulceration is one of the possible complications with the use of alendronate.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Diazepam Pharmacology

Diazepam has numerous dosage forms. There are rectal, injectable, and oral formulations of the drug that are commonly used in clinical practice.

Diazepam has 2 major metabolic pathways. It is broken down primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, leaving open the potential for numerous drug interactions. I discuss this further in the podcast.

Diazepam is on the Beers list because it has a tendency to accumulate in the geriatric patient population and cause adverse effects like sedation, confusion, and falls.

Respiratory depression, coma, and death are significantly more likely in overdose situations where opioids are used in combination with benzodiazepines like diazepam.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Dicyclomine Pharmacology

Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic agent that is used to help manage GI pain associated with IBS.

Dicyclomine has a very short half-life which means that it can be dosed multiple times per day.

Be careful with patients who have predominant constipation with their IBS as dicyclomine can exacerbate this.

Bentyl is the brand name of dicyclomine. This drug blocks the action of acetylcholine.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Diltiazem Pharmacology

Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that can be used in atrial fibrillation as well as hypertension.

One big downside to diltiazem is that it does have a few drug interactions via CYP3A4.

Aripiprazole, apixaban, and certain statins are all examples of medication that can have concentrations increased by adding diltiazem to a patient’s regimen.

Diltiazem works a little differently from dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (like amlodipine) as it works on the heart AND the vessels.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Zolpidem Pharmacology

Zolpidem enhances the action of GABA which is an inhibitor neurotransmitter.

Zolpidem metabolism can be impacted by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors. Concentrations can rise on account of this potential interaction.

It is important to remember to go slowly when tapering off zolpidem. Particularly in patients who have been on the drug for a long time or those who are on higher doses.

Abnormal sleeping behaviors like sleep-walking, eating, or driving have been reported with zolpidem.

Remember that CNS depressant drug interactions can happen with zolpidem. Take note of any other sedating medications prior to starting zolpidem.

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Oral Semaglutide Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss the pharmacology of oral semaglutide. It is a GLP-1 agonist that is the first one in the class to have an oral formulation.

There is a recommended dose titration with oral semaglutide that can take a month or two to get therapeutic doses. I disucss this further in this episode.

The most common adverse effect of oral semaglutide is nausea.

Oral semaglutide is dosed once daily which is nice to try to maximize patient adherence.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

Probenecid Pharmacology

Patients with G6PD deficiency who are taking probenecid are at increased risk for hemolytic anemia.

In a patient taking probenecid, they need to have adequate kidney function for the drug to work.

GI upset is likely the most common adverse effect of probenecid. It can be given with food.

Probenecid can raise the concentrations of many common antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins.

Remember that there are many medications that can oppose the beneficial effects of probenecid. Thiazides, niacin, and some immunosuppressants can raise uric acid.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

I also discuss drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ book on managing drug interactions in primary care.