Cabergoline Pharmacology

Cabergoline is a dopamine agonist. I discuss the pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions in this podcast episode.

Be on the lookout for drugs that could oppose the effects of cabergoline such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.

Cabergoline can be used for hyperprolactinemia management and may cause adverse effects like hypotension and GI upset.

Cabergoline has a very long half-life so it is most often only dosed 1-2 times per week.

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Verapamil Pharmacology Podcast

On this episode, I discuss verapamil pharmacology, adverse effects, and important drug interactions.

There are numerous drug interactions to be aware of with verapamil as it inhibits the enzyme CYP3A4.

Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker (non-dihydropyridine) that blocks calcium channels in the heart and vessels.

In addition to hypotension and bradycardia, verapamil can cause constipation which may be more prominent in our geriatric patients.

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Salmeterol (Serevent) Pharmacology

In this episode, I cover salmeterol (Serevent) pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and special warnings with this medication.

Salmeterol is a long acting beta agonist that can be used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids for management of asthma.

Salmeterol can be used as monotherapy in COPD and should not be used as monotherapy in asthma.

Elevations in pulse and blood pressure can happen with a beta agonist like salmeterol.

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Esomeprazole (Nexium) Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss esomeprazole (Nexium) pharmacology, adverse effects, tapering, kinetics, and drug interactions.

I spend a good amount of time discussing the esomeprazole and clopidogrel interaction in this podcast episode.

Esomeprazole inhibits CYP2C19. This can cause an increase in citalopram concentrations and raise the potential for QTc prolongation.

It is critical to reassess the length of therapy and the dose of PPIs like esomeprazole.

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Denosumab (Prolia) Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss denosumab pharmacology, adverse effects, clinical pearls, and drug interactions.

Whenever I see an osteoporosis medication like denosumab used, I review the medications to ensure that we avoid medications that can cause osteoporosis.

Denosumab is often used as a potential alternative in osteoporosis management for those that cannot tolerate bisphosphonates.

We need to monitor calcium levels when using denosumab as levels can be dangerously low, especially when used in combination with other calcium lowering drugs.

Loop diuretics and cinacalcet can have additive hypocalcemia effects when used in combination with denosumab.

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Roflumilast (Daliresp) Pharmacology

On this episode I discuss roflumilast (Daliresp) pharmacology, adverse effects, and important drug interactions.

Roflumilast is indicated to reduce the incidence of COPD exacerbations.

Roflumilast is significantly broken down by CYP3A4 so there are numerous drug interactions that we have to take into account.

Psychiatric issues, GI upset, and weight loss are all potential adverse effects due to roflumilast.

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Trihexyphenidyl (Artane) Pharmacology

On this episode, I breakdown trihexyphenidyl (Artane) pharmacology, adverse effects, and drug interactions.

Trihexyphenidyl is highly anticholinergic and can cause constipation, dry eyes, dry mouth, and urinary retention.

Dementia medications like donepezil can have their effects blunted by the use of trihexyphenidyl.

Trihexyphenidyl is an older anticholinergic that is rarely used for the management of EPS caused by antipsychotics.

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Liraglutide Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss liraglutide pharmacology, drug interactions, and adverse effects.

Liraglutide is well known to cause nausea. It is important to assess the severity of nausea as it may subside in some patients as they gain tolerability to the medication.

We mentioned the 2022 Diabetes Guideline Cheat Sheet in the podcast – you can get that for free at pyrls.com/rlp

Liraglutide has a fairly low risk of hypoglycemia when used alone, but this risk increases when it is used with insulin or sulfonylureas.

Saxenda is the weight loss formulation of liraglutide and dosing is higher for weight management than it is for diabetes management.

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Pravastatin Pharmacology

On this episode, I breakdown pravastatin pharmacology, adverse effects, drug interactions and when you might see this drug used in practice.

Pravastatin is a statin and will lower LDL. Its use is a little limited in the fact that it is not as potent as other agents in its LDL lowering effects.

Pravastatin is hydrophilic which differentiates it from simvastatin, atorvastatin, and lovastatin.

I describe rhabdomyolysis in this podcast as it is a potential rare adverse effect of pravastatin.

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Clomiphene Pharmacology

On this episode, I discuss clomiphene pharmacology, adverse effects, clinical practice pearls, and drug interactions.

Clomiphene is a commonly used medication to help manage female infertility.

Clomiphene is oral and relatively inexpensive compared to other agents that are used for infertility management.

Clomiphene is a SERM so you can anticipate that some patients may report vasomotor symptoms like flushing and hot flashes.

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